“Ibn Warraq is a hero of mine, and it is shameful that he and his writings have not been recognized for their scholarship, courage, and relevance. Ever since Leon de Winter gave me Ibn Warraq’s book Why I am Not a Muslim I have cherished it. It has had a profound influence on me, and gave me courage in my own work and activities. His subsequent books have defended Western civilization and have reminded us what we are fighting for. Ibn Warraq deserves our attention and thanks.”

Ayaan Hirsi Ali,  Activist and Author of Nomad: From Islam to America: A Personal Journey Through the Clash of Civilizations (2010) and Heretic: Why Islam Needs a Reformation Now (2015)


“Ibn Warraq exemplifies the rarely combined qualities of courage, integrity, and intelligence.”

Professor  Bernard Lewis.Cleveland E. Dodge Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University, author of The Arabs in History (1950), What Went Wrong (2002) and many others.




Paul Berman, author of Terror and Liberalism :

“First, let me mention Ibn Warraq’s book Defending the West. Fred Siegel said that the book has been described as a “glorious work of scholarship”; I may be remembering incorrectly, but I think that is my own blurb on the back of the book. If it isn’t, I wish I had written it. Ibn Warraq is a major world figure among intellectuals. If you go through his books, you’ll be astounded at his erudition. The depth of knowledge that he brings to questions of Islam and Islamic culture in various languages: there is no relation to the depth that Edward Said brought to these topics. Ibn Warraq’s Defending the West is, in effect, one of the most devastating demolitions of an intellectual giant that I’ve ever seen. I don’t think that the book has so far been fully appreciated; it’s a book that will take some time to sink in. But I do think that Ibn Warraq has written a book that will turn out to be of historic importance in demolishing the ideological system that Said created.”

Fouad Ajami, Professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies and author of The Foreigner’s Gift: The Americans, the Arabs, and the Iraqis in Iraq:

“Ibn Warraq has written a brilliant and luminous book [Defending the West] of cultural analysis and intellectual history. He reminds us of so many precious things in the West-and of it- that are worth upholding in the face of critics who enjoy Western liberties and denigrate them at the same time. This is more than a demolition of Edward Said’s Orientalism: In its own right, it is an exquisite inquiry into the great ideas at play in our world.”

Dr David Cook, Professor in Religious Studies at Rice University, Texas:

“As a scholar of Islam myself, I find Ibn Warraq’s attitude to be very refreshing, and his scholarship for the most part to be accurate and devastating in pinpointing weaknesses in Muslim orthodoxy. His third essay, “Some Aspects of the History of Koran Criticism, 700 CE to 2005 CE,”[in Virgins? What Virgins? And Other Essays] could almost serve as a history of our field, and of its systematic failure to critique the foundational texts of Islam as those of other faiths have been critiqued. It is an embarrassment for Islamic Studies that no critical text of the Qur’an has been produced. However, even were this basic, elemental work done, there would be still a great more to be done in order to counter one of the most fundamental Muslim presuppositions—namely, that the text of the Qur’an has remained absolutely unaltered since the time of the Prophet Muhammad in the seventh century of the Common Era. Ibn Warraq counters this nonsense, which one hears on a regular basis even from educated Muslims who should know better, by demonstrating the prevalence of variant readings of the Qur’anic text. That the existence of these variants, known as qira’at, demonstrates the falsity of the orthodox Muslim position vis-à-vis the Qur’an is obvious, and yet bizarrely rejected even by mainstream scholars. ”




Why I Am Not a Muslim

“My favorite book on Islam is the rationalist critique Why I Am Not a Muslim.”
– Christopher Hitchens in The Atlantic Monthly
“. . . a courageous and prophethic call to value and protect human rights, especially the rights of women.”
National Catholic Reporter
“The problem with a book such as this is that it will most likely never reach those most in need of it. How many libraries will stock it, or dare stock it if they knew its contents?”
The New Humanist
“. . . transcends The Satanic Verses in terms of sacrilege. Where Rushdie offered an elusive critique of Islam in an airy tale of magical realism, Ibn Warraq brings a scholarly sledgehammer to the task of demolishing Islam. Such an act, especially for an author of Muslim birth, is so incendiary that the author must write under a pseudonym; not to do so would be an act of suicide”
The Weekly Standard
” . . . a completely compelling case for the conclusion that Islam is flatly incompatible with the establishment and maintenance of the equal individual rights and liberties of a liberal, democratic, secular state.”
Salisbury Review
“Ibn Warraq has done for Islam what Bertrand Russell did for Christianity, but at much greater personal risk. . . . His [fate] would be that of Salman Rushdie’s were he to reveal his true name rather than the pseudonym he uses. This book is must reading for all who would understand the possibilities and the dangers of affirming multi-culturalism in today’s world.”
The Human Quest
“At long last a writer has risen to the challenge posed by this religion of compulsion. He has put together in one book all the objectionable rules of Islam, and has made it into one of the best books about Islam that I have seen in many years. We must be extremely grateful to Ibn Warraq for his revealing book.”
Humanist in Canada


Origins-of-the-KoranThe Origins of the Koran: Classic Essays on Islam’s Holy Book

This volume rejects the notion that Islam’s sacred text is error free and cannot be critically evaluated. The study of the Koran must develop and mature. Scholars of Islam are of course familiar with the book’s many errors and contradictions, but these inherent flaws have rarely been revealed to a wider public. This book is an attempt to remedy this deficiency by bringing together classic critical essays which raise key issues surrounding Islam’s holy book.

Divided into four parts, this important anthology begins with Theodor Nöldeke’s first truly scientific study of the Koran. Part Two focuses on the difficulty of establishing a reliable Koranic text, while Part Three examines the Jewish, Christian, and Zoroastrian sources of Muhammad’s “revelation.” Part Four is a consideration of the controversial interpretations of contemporary scholar John Wansbrough, who questions the historical reliability of the earliest Islamic sources.

This superb collection, which includes additional selections from Leone Caetani, Arthur Jeffery, David Margoliouth, Andrew Rippin, C.C. Torrey, and more, will prove indispensable to scholars and all those interested in the textual underpinning of one of the fastest growing religions in the world.


“Recommended to college libraries…” — Middle East Studies Association Bulletin 35, 2001


The Quest for the Historical Muhammad

More than one hundred years ago Western scholars began to investigate the origins of Islam, using the highest standards of objective historical scholarship of the time. Their aim was to determine what could be known about Muhammad and the rise of early Islam quite apart from the pious and totally unobjective traditions preserved by the Muslim religious community. In some ways this research was inspired by a similar investigation of Christianity made famous by Albert Schweitzer’s Quest of the Historical Jesus. Today although much has been learned about early Christianity, little comparable progress has been made in the field of Islamic Studies. Here objective historical research has long been severely handicapped both by the resistance of Muslim societies to Western analysis of their sacred traditions and by the apologetic approaches of many Western scholars, who have compromised their investigations for fear of offending Muslim sensibilities.

It is in this context that Ibn Warraq presents this important anthology of the best studies of Muhammad and early Islam ranging from the very beginnings of Islamic Studies in the nineteenth century to contemporary research. In his selection and in an introductory essay, Warraq makes it clear that some very serious scholarly controversies lie at the heart of Islam. First, the Koran itself, the Muslim sacred scripture and the foundation of Islamic culture, is called into question as the basis for objective historical knowledge of Muhammad. Some scholars have also questioned the reliability of most of the other early Arabic documents that supposedly attest to events in the life of Muhammad and his followers. Was the Koran dictated by Muhammad at all? Was it actually compiled any earlier than a hundred years after the Prophet’s death? How much of Muslim sacred tradition, in the light of objective historical analysis, must be dismissed as unreliable hearsay? Were the motives of the first Muslim conquerors during the Jihad truly religious in nature or largely mercenary? These disturbing questions, long suppressed throughout the history of Islamic scholarship, are here raised again in these erudite and thoroughly researched essays by noted scholars.

“In this immensely valuable source, Ibn Warraq has collected seminal studies from several academic journals from the past 150 years….Regardless of one’s view, Ibn Warraq has performed a valuable service by bringing these important – and largely inaccessible – studies in a single volume, and by translating original German and French publications into English…Highly recommended to all colleges and university libraries and to public libraries with collections in the history of religion….” Professor Merlin Swartz, Boston University in Choice, 38, October, 2000.




What the Koran Really Says

This excellent collection of critical commentaries on the Koran brings together outstanding articles by noted scholars from the beginning of the 20th century to recent times. These important studies, as well as the editor’s own lengthy introduction, show that little about the text of the Koran can be taken at face value. Among the fascinating topics discussed is evidence that early Muslims did not understand Muhammad’s original revelation, that the ninth-century explosion of literary activity was designed to organize and make sense of an often incoherent text, and that much of the traditions surrounding Muhammad’s life were fabricated long after his death in an attempt to give meaning to the Koran. Also of interest are suggestions that Coptic and other Christian sources heavily influenced much of the text and that some passages reflect even an Essenian background reaching back to the community of the Dead Sea Scrolls. This valuable compilation will be a welcome resource to interested lay readers and scholars alike.


“For the professional Islamicist, it is enormously convenient to have all these articles assembled together in a single work. For anyone interested in the Koran, it will be a boon to understanding Islam. …robustly critical scholarship….”
Dr.Chase Robinson in The Times Literary Supplement, 12 September, 2003
“Like Ibn Warraq’s earlier (and extraordinary) Why I Am Not a Muslim, this book offers a perspective on Islam and the Koran which demands a wider reading and a wider debate , and not just in the Christian and secular West…. [An] excellent book on a sensitive and under-explored subject.”
Fortean Times


Apostates-Speak-OutLeaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out

In the West abandoning one’s religion (apostasy) can be a difficult, emotional decision, which sometimes has social repercussions. However, in culturally diverse societies where there is a mixture of ethnic groups and various philosophies of life, most people look upon such shifts in intellectual allegiance as a matter of personal choice and individual right. By contrast, in Islam apostasy is still viewed as an almost unthinkable act, and in orthodox circles it is considered a crime punishable by death. Renowned scholar of Islamic Studies Bernard Lewis described the seriousness of leaving the Islamic faith in the following dire terms: “Apostasy was a crime as well as a sin, and the apostate was damned both in this world and the next. His crime was treason ù desertion and betrayal of the community to which he belonged, and to which he owed loyalty; his life and property were forfeit. He was a dead limb to be excised.”

Defying the death penalty applicable to all apostates in Islam, the ex-Muslims who are here represented feel it is their duty to speak up against their former faith, to tell the truth about the fastest growing religion in the world. These former Muslims, from all parts of the Islamic world, recount how they slowly came to realize that the religion into which they were born was in many respects unbelievable and sometimes even dangerous.

These memoirs of personal journeys to enlightenment and intellectual freedom make for moving reading and are a courageous signal to other ex-Muslims to come out of the closet.


“…probably the first book of its kind…testimonies from former Muslims about their estrangement from the Islamic faith.” — New York Review of Books, April 29, 2004

“Leaving Islam’s stories make eye-opening reading.” — Boston Globe


Defending the WestDefending the West: A Critique of Edward Said’s Orientalism

This is the first systematic critique of Edward Said’s influential work, Orientalism, a book that for almost three decades has received wide acclaim, voluminous commentary, and translation into more than fifteen languages. Said’s main thesis was that the Western image of the East was heavily biased by colonialist attitudes, racism, and more than two centuries of political exploitation. Although Said’s critique was controversial, the impact of his ideas has been a pervasive rethinking of Western perceptions of Eastern cultures, plus a tendency to view all scholarship in Oriental Studies as tainted by considerations of power and prejudice.

In this thorough reconsideration of Said’s famous work, Ibn Warraq argues that Said’s case against the West is seriously flawed. Warraq accuses Said of not only willfully misinterpreting the work of many scholars, but also of systematically misrepresenting Western civilization as a whole. With example after example, he shows that ever since the Greeks Western civilization has always had a strand in its very makeup that has accepted non-Westerners with open arms and has ever been open to foreign ideas.

The author also criticizes Said for inadequate methodology, incoherent arguments, and a faulty historical understanding. He points out, not only Said’s tendentious interpretations, but historical howlers that would make a sophomore blush.

Warraq further looks at the destructive influence of Said’s study on the history of Western painting, especially of the 19th century, and shows how, once again, the epigones of Said have succeeded in relegating thousands of first-class paintings to the lofts and storage rooms of major museums.

An extended appendix reconsiders the value of 18th- and 19th-century Orientalist scholars and artists, whose work fell into disrepute as a result of Said’s work.


“Ibn Warraq’s critique of Said’s thought and work is thorough and convincing, indeed devastating to anyone depending on Saidism. It should force the Saidists to acknowledge the sophistry of their false prophet.”
–                                      A.J. Caschetta, Middle East Quarterly.
“Ibn Warraq has written a brilliant and luminous book of cultural analysis and intellectual history. He reminds us of so many precious things in the West – and of it – that are worth upholding in the face of critics who enjoy Western liberties and denigrate them at the same time. This is more than a demolition of Edward Said’s Orientalism: In its own right, it is an exquisite inquiry into the great ideas at play in our world.”
  –                                     Fouad Ajami, Professor at The Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies Author of The Foreigner’s Gift: The Americans, the Arabs and the Iraqis in Iraq.
“For decades Edward Said enjoyed the best that Western academic life had to offer – international celebrity, plaudits, honors and fame beyond the wildest dreams of most professors – while constantly bashing the history, values, and policies that have made this privileged existence possible. In Defending the West the eminent intellectual Ibn Warraq exposes with razor sharp precision the hypocrisy of Said’s writings as well as the perverted academic culture that has made his great success possible. With this important new book Ibn Warraq has once and for all dispatched Orientalism to the dustbin of history.”
–                                        Efraim Karsh, Head of Mediterranean Studies, University of London, Author of Empires of the Sand and Islamic Imperialism: A History.


Virgins-What-VirginsVirgins? What Virgins?: And Other Essays

In this wide-ranging collection of insightful, controversial, and often-witty essays, the renowned author of Why I Am Not a Muslim has created a representative selection of his best work on the Koran and various problems posed by the interaction of Islam with the West. The title of the collection comes from an article that originally appeared in the London Guardian on recent textual studies of the Koran. This research suggests that, contrary to a longstanding Muslim belief about the afterlife, a harem of beautiful virgins may not be waiting for the faithful male departed in heaven. For the many readers of his books who have wondered about his background, the author begins with a charming personal sketch about his upbringing in England and his unabashed Anglophilia. A section on Koranic criticism includes excerpts from two of his books, What the Koran Really Says and Which Koran? No stranger to controversy and polemics, the author devotes two sections to articles that consider the totalitarian nature of contemporary political Islam and explore the potential for an Islamic Reformation comparable to the Protestant Reformation in the West. The concluding section is composed of Ibn Warraq’s journalism, including a critique of reputed Muslim reformer Tariq Ramadan, a defense of Western culture (“Why the West Is Best),” an article about the Danish cartoons that provoked widespread Muslim outrage, and even a commentary on heavy metal music in a Muslim setting. This thoughtful, engaging collection on diverse topics will interest both longtime readers of Ibn Warraq and those new to his work.


“Ibn Warraq is a courageous writer on Islam and a passionate defender of reason who continues to struggle on behalf of reason with a culture that seems to be at odds with reason. In this respect, his work … is an indispensable tool for Muslims themselves so they can wage their struggle for enlightenment and reform of their faith tradition.”
–            Middle East Quarterly


which-koranWhich Koran?: Variants, Manuscripts, Linguistics

For many millions of Muslims there is one and only one true Koran that offers the word of Allah to the faithful. Few Muslims realize, however, that there are several Korans in circulation in the Islamic world, with textual variations whose significance, extent, and meaning have never been properly examined. The author of Virgins? What Virgins? and Why I Am Not a Muslim has here assembled important scholarly articles that address the history, linguistics, and religious implications of these significant variants in Islam’s sacred book, which call into question the claim of its status as the divinely revealed and inerrant word of the Muslim god. This work includes valuable charts that list the many textual variants found in Korans available in the Islamic world, along with remarks on their significance.


“Despite the text’s extraordinary significance, the origins of the Koran are obscure in the extreme. Much like earlier compilations edited by Ibn Warraq, Which Koran? brings together a wealth of important European scholarship, much of which is translated into English for the first time. It will be of great interest not only to specialists in early Arabic and Koranic studies but also to students of early Islam and those interested in scripture more generally.”
–            Dr. Chase Robinson, formerly professor of Islamic history at the University of Oxford, now Distinguished Professor of History and provost of the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and author of Abd al-Malik, Islamic Historiography, and Empire and Elites after the Muslim Conquest.


Why-the-WestWhy the West is Best: A Muslim Apostate’s Defense of Liberal Democracy

We, in the West in general, and the United States in particular, have witnessed over the last twenty years a slow erosion of our civilizational self-confidence. Under the influence of intellectuals and academics in Western universities, intellectuals such as Gore Vidal, Susan Sontag, Edward Said, and Noam Chomsky, and destructive intellectual fashions such as post-modernism, moral relativism, and mulitculturalism, the West has lost all self-confidence in its own values, and seems incapable and unwilling to defend those values. By contrast, resurgent Islam, in all its forms, is supremely confident, and is able to exploit the West’s moral weakness and cultural confusion to demand ever more concessions from her. The growing political and demographic power of Muslim communities in the West, aided and abetted by Western apologists of Islam, not to mention a compliant, pro-Islamic US Administration, has resulted in an ever-increasing demand for the implementation of Islamic law-the Sharia- into the fabric of Western law, and Western constitutions. There is an urgent need to examine why the Sharia is totally incompatible with Human Rights and the US Constitution. This book , the first of its kind, proposes to examine the Sharia and its potential and actual threat to democratic principles.

This book defines and defends Western values, strengths and freedoms often taken for granted. This book also tackles the taboo subjects of racism in Asian culture, Arab slavery, and Islamic Imperialism. It begins with a homage to New York City, as a metaphor for all we hold dear in Western culture- pluralism, individualism, freedom of expression and thought, the complete freedom to pursue life, liberty and happiness unhampered by totalitarian regimes, and theocratic doctrines.


Koranic-AllusionsKoranic Allusions: The Biblical, Qumranian, and Pre-Islamic Background to the Koran

For anyone with an interest in the early history of Islam, this erudite anthology will prove to be informative and enlightening.

Scholars have long known that the text of the Koran shows evidence of many influences from religious sources outside Islam. For example, stories in the Koran about Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other characters from the Bible obviously come from the Jewish Torah and the Christian Gospels. But there is also evidence of borrowing in the Koran from more obscure literature.

In this anthology, the acclaimed critic of Islam Ibn Warraq has assembled scholarly articles that delve into these unusual, little-known sources. The contributors examine the connections between pre-Islamic poetry and the text of the Koran; and they explore similarities between various Muslim doctrines and ideas found in the writings of the Ebionites, a Jewish Christian sect that existed from the second to the fourth centuries. Also considered is the influence of Coptic Christian literature on the writing of the traditional biography of Muhammad.


“With this anthology, Ibn Warraq makes accessible to the public a collection of classic and modern articles–many of which have not previously been available in English–that examine Koranic source materials. This volume renders a great service to Islamic studies today.”
Pierre Larcher, professor of Arabic Linguistics, Aix-Marseille University

“Ibn Warraq’s anthologies have helped me and many of my colleagues considerably in our work. They have helped advance Koranic Studies for the last fifteen years, and are indispensable research tools for a new generation of scholars. Warraq’s diligence has resulted in the recovery of the works of the great nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Semiticists and Arabists–especially German and French, almost forgotten, and certainly neglected. His probing questions and general skepticism of sources expressed in his lengthy introductions are worth pondering, and should help refine our methodological principles.”
Christoph Luxenberg, author of The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran.


Sir-Walter-Scotts-Crusades-and-Other-FantasiesSir Walter Scott’s Crusades and Other Fantasies

Ibn Warraq makes an invaluable corrective contribution to our understanding of literature and its impact on popular conceptions of history. Warraq takes for his study the historical novels of Sir Walter Scott and makes a facinating comparison between the novels (and Scott’s sources) and what is known from the Arab sources and biographers of Saladin and the Crusades. Then he discusses the work of many other scholars of this period so the reader comes away with a well-rounded view, not only of the Crusades, but the scholarship of the period as well.

Beyond that, Warraq discusses antisemitism and the Jewish plight during the Medieval era, (as well as their oppressed status under Islamic rule) on through to the early Christian Zionist movement in literature focusing especially on the work of George Eliot and Charlotte Elizabeth.

Warraq ends by discussing the primary importance of freedom of expression and how that is threatened in the modern world. He holds up the South Park Affair as a prime example of the West’s tendency of to fold before Islam “like some third rate poker player who throws in the cards at the first aggressive bluff when he is in fact holding the winning hand.”

Ibn Warraq is the rare scholar who still believes in objective truth and that that truth may be found (or at least approximated) by a thorough and dispassionate examination of the evidence. His is the calm voice of reason in a world carried away by hyperbole.


“Ibn Warraq exemplifies the rarely combined qualities of courage, integrity, and intelligence.”

Bernard Lewis, Cleveland E. Dodge Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University, author of The Arabs in History (1950), What Went Wrong (2002) and many others.

With his usual wit, erudition and humanity, Ibn Warraq considers a literary subject and draws lessons from it of philosophical and political importance.

Theodore Dalrymple, author of Life at the Bottom, Farewell Fear and many others.


Christmas-in-the-KoranChristmas in the Koran: Luxenberg, Syriac, and the Near Eastern and Judeo-Christian Background of Islam

Centering on the pioneering work of Christoph Luxenberg, this anthology of scholarly yet accessible studies of the Koran makes a convincing case that Islam’s holy book borrowed heavily from Christian texts in Syriac and other Near Eastern sources.

In this important compilation, Ibn Warraq focuses on the pioneering work in Syriac and Arabic linguistics of Christoph Luxenberg, a native speaker of Arabic who lives in the West and writes under a pseudonym. Luxenberg’s careful studies of the Koran are significant for many reasons. First, he has clarified numerous obscurities in the Koran by treating the confusing passages as poor translations into Arabic of original Syriac texts. He demonstrates that when one translates the difficult Arabic words back into Syriac, the meaning becomes clear. Beyond textual clarity, Luxenberg’s scholarship provides ample evidence that the Koran developed from a Judeo-Christian background, since Syriac (a dialect of Aramaic) was the main language of both Jews and Christians in the Middle East before the advent of Islam.

Ibn Warraq supplies English translations of key articles by Luxenberg that originally appeared in German and have never before been available to an English readership. This is followed by commentary by other scholars on Luxenberg’s work. Also included are articles by earlier specialists who anticipated the later insights of Luxenberg, and more recent scholarship inspired by his methodology.

Erudite but accessible, this groundbreaking collection is must reading for anyone with an interest in the origins of the Koran and the early history of Islam.


Praise for Christmas in the Koran:

“Ibn Warraq presents, translates, and synthesizes a massive number of hard-to-get articles on the Aramaic-Syriac substratum of the Koran. He proves that he is not only a master of past scholarship, but of the present, interacting with Luxenberg’s controversial work on the Syriac Christian (Aramaic) meanings of obscure Koranic words and phrases. Additionally he gives us a mountain of evidence that traditional Muslim understandings (all too often parroted by apologists for Islam) of the Arabic Koranic text are fatally flawed and even in places ludicrous, raising questions about its textual transmission as well as the issue of interpretation. It is rare today to find a scholar with Warraq’s courage to confront these issues. . . . His work could not be more timely.”

David Cook, Department of Religious Studies, Rice University

“[A] brilliant collection of scintillating inquiries concerning the true origin of the Koran…. The…essays in this exhaustive volume are paragons of critical scholarship in a hermeneutic ocean that contains the early history not only of Islam, but of Christianity also; comparative Aramaic scholarship; general and comparative Semitic linguistics; and new coherent and insightful interpretations of Koranic textual difficulties. The authors of these works represent the most rigorous and consequential scholars in their respective field(s), past and present…. Warraq is always discreet yet irrefutable in his literary skill and scholarship. His intellectual contribution is for our age, and for the ages.”

Michael B. Schub, PhD, Lecturer in Arabic, Hebrew, and comparative religions at Cornell, Yale, the University of Miami, and Trinity College.

“Warraq creates new syntheses that will be indispensable reference tools for the specialized and wider public and will certainly stimulate and orient future research. He satisfies the urgent need of a larger public for reliable, state-of-the-art information on Islam, its prophet, and its fundamental texts. His introduction is a well-documented and detailed overview of the problem of language conflicts between Semitic and other languages, Semitic languages themselves, and Arabic and Aramaic (Syriac) in particular. In short a splendid volume packed with information, stimulating and controversial.”

Professor Dr. Manfred Kropp, Semitic and Islamic Studies, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz