Reasons For Leaving Islam: Islam On Trial
Textual Evidence From Original Muslim Arabic Sources
PART ONE : MUHAMMAD AND HIS COMPANIONS .
A: Muhammad’s Cruelty .
- When some people from the tribe of Ukl who had reverted from Islam and killed a shepherd of camels were captured , Muhammad ordered that their hands and legs be cut off , and that their eyes be branded with heated pieces of iron , and that their cut hands and legs not be cauterized till they die .
Source : al-Bukhari [ died 870 C.E.] , Sahih ( trans.Dr
M.M.Khan ),Kitab Bhavan , New Delhi , 1987 ,Vol 8.Chapter
82,The Book of the Punishment of those who wage war against
Allah and His Messenger. pp 519-520
- A similar story is told about some men of Qays of Kubba of
Bajila in Ibn Ishaq’s biography of the Prophet .
Source : Ibn Ishaq [ died 767 C.E.], Sirat Rasul Allah , The
Life of Muhammad , trans.A.Guillaume , Oxford University
Press , Oxford , 1987 [ Ist edn.1955 ] pp.677-678
- Muhammad , the Prophet , orders the torture of a prisoner in order to discover the whereabouts of some hidden treasure .“Torture him until you extract it from him ” Muhammad is quoted as saying .
Sources : 1. Ibn Hisham[died 828 ] , al-Sira al –Nabawiyya ,
Vol.2 (Cairo , 1955 ) pp.328-338
- Ibn Ishaq , Sirat Rasul Allah , The Life of
Muhammad , trans. A.Guillaume , Oxford
University Press , Oxford , 1987 [ Ist.
- The History of al-Tabari (died 923 C.E.) ( Tarikh
al-rusul wa’l-muluk ) , Vol.VIII , The Victory of
Islam , trans. Michael Fishbein , State University
of New York Press , Albany , NY.
USA , 1997 :pp.122-123
- Muhammad revives the cruel practice of stoning to death for adultery
Source : 1. Ibn Ishaq , Sirat Rasul Allah , The Life of
Muhammad , trans. A.Guillaume , Oxford University
Press ,Oxford ,1987 [Ist.edn.1955 ] pp.266-267
Source : 2. Bukhari , Sahih , trans. Dr. M .Muhsin Khan , New
Delhi :Kitab Bhavan ,1987 , Vol.7 , Book 62 : Book
of Nikah (Wedlock ) ,Hadith No 195 , p.147
- v) There came to him (Muhammad ) , a woman from Ghamid and said : Allah’s Messenger , I have committed adultery , so purify me . He ( the Holy Prophet ) turned her away .On the following day she said : …By Allah , I have become pregnant . He said : Well if you insist upon it , then go away until you give birth to ( the child ) .When she was delivered she came with the child ( wrapped ) in a rag and said : Here is the child whom I have given birth to . He said : Go away and suckle him until you wean him . When she had weaned him , she came to him ( the Holy Prophet ) with the child who was holding a piece of bread in his hand .She said : Allah’s Apostle , here is he as I have weaned him and he eats food .He ( the Holy Prophet ) entrusted the child to one of the Muslims and then pronounced punishment .And she was put in a ditch up to her chest and he commanded people and they stoned her .Khalid b.Walid came forward with a stone which he flung at her head , and there spurted blood on the face of Khalid and so he abused her ….[ Muhammad impressed by her repentance ] prayed over her and she was buried .
Source : Muslim , Sahih , Translated by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi , Kitab Bhavan , New Delhi , Reprinted ,1997 , Vol. III , Book 682 , Kitab al-Hudud , Hadith 4206 .pp.916-917.
- vi) . Crushing the head of a murderer between two stones .
Source : Bukhari , Sahih , trans. Dr. M .Muhsin Khan , New Delhi :Kitab Bhavan ,1987 , Vol.7 , Book 62 : Book of Nikah (Wedlock ) ,Hadith No 216 pp165-166
vii) . Islam , A Religion of Fear :Torture in the Grave :« Aisha reported : There came to me two old women from the old Jewesses of Medina and said : The people of the grave are tormented in their graves .I contradicted them and I did not deem it proper to testify them .They went away and the Messenger of Allh ( may peace be upon him ) came to me and I said to him : Messenger of Allah ! there came to me two old women from the old Jewesses of Medina and asserted that the people of the graves would be tormented therein . He ( the Prophet ) said : They told the truth ; they would be tormented ( so much ) that the animals would listen to it .She (‘Aisha ) said : Never did I see him ( the Holy Prophet ) afterwards but seeking refuge from the torment of the grave in prayer . »
Source : Muslim , Sahih , trans. Abdul Hamid Siddiqi , Kitab Bhavan , New Delhi , 1997 ,Book IV ,CCXVIII Kitab al-Salat , Hadith No.1214 p.290 .
- Muhammad’s hatred of the Jews :
- “Kill any Jews that falls into your power ” said the Prophet : p.369
- The killing of Ibn Sunayna,and its admiration leading someone to convert to Islam :p.369
3 The killing of Sallam ibn Abu’l –Huqayq : pp.482-483
- The assassination of Ka‘b b.al-Ashraf ,who wrote verses against Muhammad: pp.364-369
- The raid against the Jewish tribe of the Banu‘l-Nadir ,and their banishment pp.437-445
6 The extermination of the Banu Qurayza , between 600-800 men .pp.461-469
- The killing of alYusayr .pp.665-666
Source : All the above ( 1-7 ) details are taken from The Life of Muhammad , A translation of Ibn Ishaq’s Sirat Rasul Allah , by A.Guillaume , Oxford University Press , Oxford , [ Ist Edn. 1955 ] 1987 .Ibn Ishaq , a Muslim historian ,is our earliest source for the life of Muhammad in any language .
- “Then occurred the “sariyyah” [raid] of Salim Ibn Umayr al-Amri against Abu Afak, the Jew, in [the month of] Shawwal in the beginning of the twentieth month from the hijrah [immigration from Mecca to Medina in 622 AD], of the Apostle of Allah. Abu Afak, was from Banu Amr Ibn Awf, and was an old man who had attained the age of one hundred and twenty years. He was a Jew, and used to instigate the people against the Apostle of Allah, and composed (satirical) verses [about Muhammad].
Salim Ibn Umayr who was one of the great weepers and who had participated in Badr, said, “I take a vow that I shall either kill Abu Afak or die before him. He waited for an opportunity until a hot night came, and Abu Afak slept in an open place. Salim Ibn Umayr knew it, so he placed the sword on his liver and pressed it till it reached his bed. The enemy of Allah screamed and the people who were his followers, rushed to him, took him to his house and interred him.
Source , Ibn Sa’d , Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir , trans. S.M.Haq , 2 Vols ., New Delhi , Vol.1 p.32
- Bani An-Nadir and Bani Quraiza fought,* so the Prophet (Muhammad) exiled Bani An-Nadir and allowed Bani Quraiza to remain at their places. He then killed their men and distributed their women, children and property among the Muslims, but some of them came to the Prophet and he granted them safety, and they embraced Islam. He exiled all the Jews from Medina. They were the Jews of Bani Qainuqa’, the tribe of ‘Abdullah bin Salam and the Jews of Bani Haritha and all the other Jews of Medina.”
Source : Bukhari , Sahih , trans. Dr. M .Muhsin Khan , New Delhi :Kitab Bhavan ,1987 , Vol.5 , Book 59 : Book of al-Maghazi ( Raids ) ,Hadith No. 362 . p241
[ *. Muhsin Khan has added in brackets after fought “ with the
Prophet violating their peace treaty ” which is not in the
original Arabic .]
C . Muhammad’s Ordering of the Assassinations of His Opponents .The assassinations are then justified in the name of Islam .
- The killing of poetess ‘Asma’ b.Marwan
Source : 1. Ibn Ishaq , Sirat Rasul Allah , The Life of Muhammad ,
trans. A.Guillaume , Oxford University Press , Oxford ,
1987 [ Ist .edn.1955 ] p.675 .
The gruesome details of Asma’s killing , and the fact of her having her
baby by her side are to be found in two other Muslim historians :
Then (occurred) the sariyyah [ raid ]of Umayr ibn adi Ibn Kharashah al-Khatmi against Asma Bint Marwan, of Banu Umayyah Ibn Zayd, when five nights had remained from the month of Ramadan, in the beginning of the nineteenth month from the hijrah of the apostle of Allah. Asma was the wife of Yazid Ibn Zayd Ibn Hisn al-Khatmi. She used to revile Islam, offend the prophet and instigate the (people) against him. She composed verses. Umayr Ibn Adi came to her in the night and entered her house. Her children were sleeping around her. There was one whom she was suckling. He searched her with his hand because he was blind, and separated the child from her. He thrust his sword in her chest till it pierced up to her back. Then he offered the morning prayers with the prophet at al-Medina. The apostle of Allah said to him: “Have you slain the daughter of Marwan?” He said: “Yes. Is there something more for me to do?” He [Muhammad] said: “No. Two goats will butt together about her. This was the word that was first heard from the apostle of Allah. The apostle of Allah called him Umayr, “basir” (the seeing )
Source:. Ibn Sa‘d ( died 845 C.E.)Kitab al-Tabaqat al –
kabir ,trans.S.M.Haq ; New Delhi , Vol.2 p.31
- See also : al-Waqidi (died 823 C.E.)German translation : Muhammed in
Medina , Berlin , 1882 , p.90f.
Further cruelty of Muhammad , the Muslims , and the planning of murders of Muhammad’s opponents is recounted in al-Tabari’s highly respected history : The History of al-Tabari (died 923 C.E.) ( Tarikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk ) , Vol.VIII , The Victory of Islam , trans. Michael Fishbein , State University of New York Press , Albany , NY. USA , 1997 :
2 The death of Umm Qirfah ( Fatimah bt. Rabiah b.Badr ) :“He [ One of Muhammad’s Commanders ] tied her legs with rope and then tied her between two camels until they split her in two .She was a very old woman ” , al-Tabari , p.96
- . Muhammad orders the killing of those of whom he disapproves : “ [ Muhammad ] gave charge concerning a group of men whom he named : he ordered that they should be killed even if they were found under the curtains of the Ka‘bah . Among them was ‘Abdallah b.Sa‘d . The Messenger of God ordered that he should be killed only because he had become a Muslim and then had reverted to being a polytheist …Also among them was ‘Abdallah b.Khatal [ who ] reverted to being a polytheist .He had two singing girls ,Fartana and another with her .The two used to sing satire about the Messenger of God ; so the latter commanded that the two of them should be killed along with him . Also among them was al-Huwayrith b.Nuqaydh , and Miqyas b.Subabah , ‘Ikrimah b.Abi Jahl and Sarah … According to al-Waqidi : the Messenger of God commanded that six men and four women should be killed ”.al-Tabari , pp.178-181
- ) Captives killed after the Battle of Badr :
“ Then the apostle began his return journey to Medina with the unbelieving prisoners , among whom were ‘Uqba b.Abu Mu‘ayt and al-Nadr b.al-Harith .The apostle carried with him the booty that had been taken from the polytheists and put ‘Abdullah b.Ka‘b in charge of it .
“ When the apostle was in al-Safra , al-Nadr was killed by ‘Ali ….When he was ‘Irqu’Zabya ‘Uqba was killed .
“ When the apostle ordered him to be killed ‘Uqba said , ‘ But who will look after my children , O Muhammad ?’ ‘Hell’ , he said , and al-Ansari killed him ”
Source : Ibn Ishaq , Sirat Rasul Allah , The Life of Muhammad ,
trans. A.Guillaume , Oxford University Press , Oxford ,
1987 [ Ist .edn.1955 ] p308
- Muhammad’s Life as a Brigand , Robber and Plunderer of Caravans .
- Muhammad “ took part personally in twenty-seven raids ” .
Source: Ibn Ishaq , Sirat Rasul Allah , The Life of Muhammad ,
trans. A.Guillaume , Oxford University Press , Oxford ,
1987 [ Ist. edn.1955 ] p.659.
- Allah sanctions Booty and Terrorism : “ When [ the Battle ] of Badr was over , Allah sent down the whole Sura Anfal ( eighth sura ) about it .With regard to their quarreling about the spoils there came down : 8.1 :‘ They will ask you about the spoils , say , the spoils belong to Allah and the apostle , so fear Allah and be at peace with one another , and obey Allah and His apostle if you are believers ’ ”. p.321
“The He taught them how to divide the spoil and His judgement about it when He made it lawful to them and said , 8.41 : ‘ And know that what you take as booty a fifth belongs to Allah and the apostle ’.p.324
Muhammad said ‘ booty was made lawful to me as to no prophet before me …. Allah said ,‘It is not for any prophet ,i.e.before thee,‘to take prisoners ’ from his enemies ‘ until he has made slaughter in the earth ’, i.e. slaughtered his enemies until he drives them from the land . ” Sura 8 verses 67-69 , Ibn Ishaq pp.326-327
Source : Ibn Ishaq , Sirat Rasul Allah , The Life of Muhammad
, trans. A.Guillaume , Oxford University Press ,
Oxford ,1987 [ Ist. edn.1955 ]
- Muhammad’s intolerance of other religions :
1 “ …I was told that the last injunction the apostle [ Muhammad] gave [ before his death ] was in his words ‘ Let not two religions be left in the Arabian peninsula ’.
Source: Ibn Ishaq , Sirat Rasul Allah , The Life of Muhammad , trans. A.Guillaume , Oxford University Press ,Oxford ,1987 [Ist edn.1955 ] p.689.
- The Apostle of Allah said ,“I will certainly expel the Jews and the Christians from Arabia ”
Source : Abu Dawud , Sunan , 3 Vols; Kitab Bhavan , New Delhi 1997 ,Vol.2 Hadith No. 3024 , p.861
- Muhammad’s marriage to six year old ‘Aishah ; consumated when she was nine years old , and he was over fifty years old .
- Abu Bakr , later (632 C.E.) First Caliph , married his daughter to Muhammad “ when she was [ only ] six years old …‘Aishah states : We came to Medina and Abu Bakr took up quarters in al-Sunh ….The Messenger of God came to our house and men and women of the Ansar gathered around him .My mother came to me while I was being swung on a swing between two branches and got me down .Jumaymah , my nurse , took over and wiped my face with some water and started leading me . When I was at the door , she stopped so I could catch my breath . I was then brought [ in ] while the Messenger of God was sitting on a bed in our house . [ My mother ] made me sit on his lap and said , “ These are your relatives .May God bless you with them and bless them with you !” Then men and women got up and left . The Messenger of God consumated his marriage to me in my house when I was nine years old .’ ”
Source : The History of al-Tabari (died 923 C.E.) ( Tarikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk ) , Vol.IX , The Last Years of the Prophet , trans.Ismail Poonawala , State University of New York Press , Albany , NY. USA , 1990 ; pp.130-131
- Narrated ‘Aisha :that the Prophet married her when she was six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years old, and then she remained with him for nine years (i.e., till his death).
Source : Bukhari , Sahih , trans. Dr. M .Muhsin Khan , New Delhi :Kitab Bhavan ,1987 , Vol.7 , Book 62 : Book of Nikah (Wedlock ) ,Hadith No.64 p50
- Narrated ‘Aisha : I used to play with the dolls in the presence of the Prophet, and my girl friends also used to play with me. When Allah’s Apostle used to enter (my dwelling place) they used to hide themselves, but the Prophet would call them to join and play with me.
Source : Bukhari , Sahih , trans. Dr. M .Muhsin Khan , New Delhi :Kitab Bhavan ,1987 , Vol.8 , Book 72: Book of Good Manners ( al-Adab ) ,Hadith No.151 , p.95
- The number of Muhammad’s wives , and his opinion of and attitude to women .
- Muhammad married thirteen women , consummated his marriage with eleven women , two of whom died before him . Thus at his death , Muhammad left behind nine wives .
Source: Ibn Ishaq , Sirat Rasul Allah , The Life of Muhammad , trans. A.Guillaume , Oxford University Press ,Oxford ,1987 [Ist edn.1955 ] p.792-794.
- “ My father reported to me that the Messenger of God married fifteen women [sic] and consummated his marriage with thirteen [ sic] .He combined eleven at a time and left behind nine .”
Source : 1. The History of al-Tabari (died 923 C.E.) ( Tarikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk ) , Vol.IX , The Last Years of the Prophet , trans.Ismail Poonawala , State University of New York Press , Albany , NY. USA , 1990 ; pp 126-127
2.Ibn al-Athir , Al- Kamil fi al-ta’rikh .14 vols .Ed. C.Tornberg , Reprint .Beirut :Dar Sadir , 1965-67 , Vol II , p.307
- Muhammad left behind two concubines at his death
Source : The History of al-Tabari (died 923 C.E.) ( Tarikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk ) , Vol.IX , The Last Years of the Prophet , trans.Ismail Poonawala , State University of New York Press , Albany , NY. USA , 1990 ; pp 141
- Muhammad compared women to domestic animals , and gave men permission to beat them .
Source : The History of al-Tabari (died 923 C.E.) ( Tarikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk ) , Vol.IX , The Last Years of the Prophet , trans.Ismail Poonawala , State University of New York Press , Albany , NY. USA , 1990 ; p113
- Muhammad gives permission to husbands to beat their wives , and what is more , a man will not be asked as to why he beat his wife .
Source : Abu Dawud , Sunan , 3 Vols; Kitab Bhavan , New Delhi 1997 ,Vol.2 Hadith 2141 and 2142 p.575
- Muhammad said , “ the woman is like a rib , If you try to straighten her she will break .So if you want to get benefit from her , do so while she still has some crookedness ”.
Source : Bukhari , Sahih , trans. Dr. M .Muhsin Khan , New
Delhi :Kitab Bhavan ,1987 , Vol.7 , Book 62 : Book
of Nikah (Wedlock ) ,Hadith No 113 ,p.80
- Muhammad stood at the gates of Hell and saw that the majority of those who entered it were women . Why ? Because of the women’s ungratefulness to men .
Source : Bukhari , Sahih , trans. Dr. M .Muhsin Khan , New
Delhi :Kitab Bhavan ,1987 , Vol.7 , Book 62 : Book
of Nikah (Wedlock ) ,Hadith No 124 , p.94 ; Hadith
No 125 , pp.95-96 .
The same hadith is found in :
- Bukhari, Sahih , 29, 304, 1052, 1462, 3241, 5197, 5198, 6449,
6546 (Fath Al-Bari’s numbering system)
- Muslim , Sahih 80, 885, 907, 2737, 2738 (Abd Al-Baqi’s
3. Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan 635, 2602, 2603, 2613 (Ahmad Shakir’s
- Al-Nasa’i,Sunan: 1493, 1575 (Abi Ghuda’s numbering system)
5. Ibn Majah, Sunan 4003 (Abd Al-Baqi’s numbering system)
- Ahmad ,Musnad: 2087, 2706, 3364, 3376, 3559, 4009, 4027,
4111, 4140, 5321, 6574, 7891, 8645, 14386, 27562, 27567,
19336, 19351, 19415, 19425, 19480, 19484, 20743, 21729,
26508 (Ihya’ Al-Turath’s numbering system)
7. Malik: Muwata’ 445 (Muqata’ Malik’s numbering system)
8. Al-Darimi: Sunan 1007 (Alami and Zarmali’s numbering system)
- 8. Muhammad said , a wife should never refuse a husband his conjugal rights even if it is on the saddle of a camel , or even on a scorching oven .
Source : ‘Aini , ‘Umdat al quâri shar’ih’al Boukhâri , Istanbul , 1308 A.H. in XI vols., vol.IX p.484
- 9. Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri :Once Allah’s Apostle went out to the Musalla (to offer the prayer) o ‘Id-al-Adha or Al-Fitr Then he passed by the women and said, “O women! Give alms, as I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-fire were you (women).” They asked, “Why is it so, O Allah’s Apostle ?” He replied, “You curse frequently and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. A cautious sensible man could be led astray by some of you.” The women asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! What is deficient in our intelligence and religion?” He said, “Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?” They replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her intelligence. Isn’t it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?” The women replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her religion” .
Source :Bukhari , Sahih , trans. Dr. M .Muhsin Khan , New Delhi :Kitab Bhavan ,1987 , Vol.1 , Book 6: Book of Menses ,Hadith No.301 pp.181-182.
- 10. Women , the greatest calamity : The Prophet said , “ After me I have not left any affliction more harmful to men than women ”.
Source : Bukhari , Sahih , trans. Dr. M .Muhsin Khan , New Delhi :Kitab
Bhavan ,1987 , Vol.7 , Book 62 : Book of Nikah (Wedlock ) ,Hadith No33.
- 11. Muhammad said , “ People who make a woman their ruler will never prosper ”.
Source , Mishkat al-Masabih , trans. James Robson , 2 Vols. , Lahore , Reprinted 1990 Book XVII p.785.
- MUHAMMAD’S RACISM :
Whites destined for Paradise , and Blacks for Hell :
Abu Al-Darda reported Allah’s Messenger ( may peace be upon him ) as saying :Allah created Adam when He had to create him and He struck his right shoulder and there emitted from it while offspring as if it were white ants .He struck his left shoulder and there emitted from it black offspring as if it were charcoals . He then said ( to those who had been emitted ) from right (shoulder ): For Paradise and I do not mind and then He said to those ( who had been emitted ) from his left shoulder : They are for Hell and I do not mind ”.
Source :Mishkat –ul-Masabih , trans. Abdul Hameed Siddiqi , Kitab Bhavan , New Delhi , 1990 , Kitab-ul-Qadr ( Book of Destiny ). Hadith 119 , pp.76-77.
PART TWO : “ OUT OF CONTEXT ”
It is quite common in this context to hear two arguments from Muslims and apologists of Islam , the language argument , and that old standby of crooked , lying politicians , “ you have quoted out of context ”.
Let us look at the Language argument first . You are asked aggressively ,‘ do you know Arabic ? ’ Then you are told triumphantly , ‘You have to read it in the original Arabic to understand it fully ’. Western freethinkers and atheists are usually reduced to sullen silence with these Muslim tactics ; they indeed become rather coy and self-defensive when it comes to criticism of Islam ; they feebly complain “ who am I to criticise Islam ? I do not know any Arabic .” And yet these same freethinkers are quite happy to criticise Christianity . How many Western freethinkers and atheists know Hebrew ? How many even know what the language of Esra chapter 4 verses 6-8 is ? Or in what language the New Testament was written ?
Of course , Muslims are also free in their criticism of the Bible and Christianity without knowing a word of Hebrew , Aramaic or Greek .
You do not need to know Arabic to criticise Islam or the Koran . Paul Kurtz does not know Arabic but he did a great job on Islam in his book The Transcendental Temptation  . You only need a critical sense , critical thought and skepticism Second , there are translations of the Koran , by Muslims themselves , so Muslims cannot claim that there has been deliberate tampering of the text by infidel translators . Third , the majority of Muslims are not Arabs , and are not Arabic speakers .So a majority of Muslims also have to rely on translations . Finally ,the language of the Koran is some form of Classical Arabic  which is totally different from the spoken Arabic of today , so even Muslim Arabs have to rely on translations to understand their holy text . Arabic is a Semitic language related to Hebrew and Aramaic , and is no easier but also no more difficult to translate than any other language . Of course , there are all sorts of difficulties with the language of the Koran , but these difficulties have been recognized by Muslim scholars themselves.The Koran is indeed a rather opaque text but it is opaque to everyone .Even Muslim scholars do not understand a fifth of it .
Let us now turn to “ you have quoted out of context ”. This could mean two things: first , the historical context to which the various verses refer ,or second , the textual context, the actual place in a particular chapter that the verse quoted comes from .The historical context argument is not available in fact to Muslims , since the Koran is the eternal word of God and true and valid for always . Thus for Muslims themselves there is no historical context . Of course , non-Muslims can legitimately and do avail themselves of the historical or cultural context to argue , for instance , that Islamic culture as a whole is anti-woman . Muslims did contradict themselves when they introduced the notion of abrogation , when a historically earlier verse was cancelled by a later one .This idea of abrogation was concocted to deal with the many contradictions in the Koran . What is more , it certainly backfires for those liberal Muslims who wish to give a moderate interpretation to the Koran since all the verses advocating tolerance ( there are some but not many ) have been abrogated by the verses of the sword .
Out of Context Argument Used Against Muslims Themselves:
Now for the textual context . First , of course , this argument could be turned against Muslims themselves . When they produce a verse preaching tolerance , we could also say that they have quoted out of context , or more pertinently (1) that such a verse has been cancelled by a more belligerent and intolerant one , (2) that in the overall context of the Koran and the whole theological construct that we call Islam ( i.e. in the widest possible context) , the tolerant verses are anomalous , or have no meaning , since Muslim theologians ignored them completely in developing Islamic Law , or that ( 3 ) the verses do not say what they seem to say .
For instance , after September 11 , 2001 , many Muslims and apologists of Islam glibly came out with the following Koranic quote to show that Islam and the Koran disapproved of violence and killing : Sura V.32 : “ Whoever killed a human being shall be looked upon as though he had killed all mankind ”.
Unfortunately , these wonderful sounding words are being quoted out of context . Here is the entire quote : V.32 :
“ That was why We laid it down for the Isrealites that whoever killed a human being , except as a punishment for murder or other villainy in the land , shall be looked upon as though he had killed all mankind ; and that whoever saved a human life shall be regarded as though he had saved all mankind .
Our apostles brought them veritable proofs : yet it was not long before many of them committed great evils in the land .
Those that make war against God and His apostle and spread disorder shall be put to death or crucified or have their hands and feet cut off on alternate sides , or be banished from the country ”.
The supposedly noble sentiments are in fact a warning to Jews . Behave or else is the message . Far from abjuring violence , these verses aggressively point out that anyone opposing the Prophet will be killed , crucified , mutilated and banished !
Behind the textual context argument is thus the legitimate suspicion that by quoting only a short passage from the Koran I have somehow distorted its real meaning . I have , so the accusation goes , lifted the offending quote from the chapter in which it was embedded , and hence , somehow altered its true sense . What does “ context” mean here ? Do I have to quote the sentence before the offending passage , and the sentence after ? Perhaps two sentences before and after ? The whole chapter ? Ultimately , of course , the entire Koran is the context .
The context , far from helping Muslims get out of difficulties only makes the barbaric principle apparent in the offending quote more obvious , as we have seen from Sura V.32 just quoted .Let us take some other examples . Does the Koran say that men have the right to physically beat their wives or not ? I say yes and quote the following verses to prove my point :
Sura IV.34 :” As for those [ women ] from whom you fear rebellion , admonish them and banish them to beds apart , and scourge [ or beat ] them ”
This translation comes from a Muslim.Have I somehow distorted the meaning of these lines ? Let us have a wider textual context :
Sura IV.34 : “ Men have authority over women because God has made the one superior to the other , and because they spend their wealth to maintain them . Good women are obedient . As for those from whom you fear disobedience , admonish them and send them to beds apart and beat them .Then if they obey you , take no further action against them . God is high , supreme .”
If anything , the wider textual context makes things worse for those apologists of Islam who wish to minimize the mysogyny of the Koran . The oppression of women has divine sanction , women must obey God and their men , who have divine authorisation to scourge them . One Muslim translator , Yusuf Ali , clearly disturbed by this verse adds the word “ lightly ” in brackets after “ beat ” even though there is no “ lightly ” in the original Arabic .An objective reading of the entire Koran ( that is the total context ) makes grim reading as far as the position of women is concerned .
Finally , of course , many of the verses that we shall quote later advocating killing of unbelievers were taken by Muslims themselves to develop the theory of Jihad . Muslim scholars themselves referred to sura VIII.67 , VIII.39 , and Sura II.216 to justify Holy War . Again the context makes it clear that it is the battle field that is being referred to , and not some absurd moral struggle ; these early Muslims were warriors after booty , land and women not some existential heroes from the pages of Albert Camus or Jean-Paul Sartre .
Let us take another example : Sura IX.
In Part Three below , in quoting from the Koran I have tried to use where possible translations by Muslims or Arabophone scholars , to avoid the accusation of using infidel translations .However , many Muslim translators have a tendency to soften down the harshness of the original Arabic , particularly in translating the Arabic word jahada , e.g. Sura 9 verse 73 . Maulana Muhammad Ali , of the Ahmadiyyah sect , translates this passage as :
Sura IX.73 : “ O Prophet , strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be firm against them . And their abode is hell , and evil is the destination .”
In a footnote of an apologetic nature , Muhammad Ali rules out the meaning “ fighting” for jahada .
However the Iraqi scholar Dawood in his Penguin translation renders this passge as :
Sura IX.73 “ Prophet , make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites and deal rigorously with them . Hell shall be their home : an evil fate .”
How do we settle the meaning of this verse ? The whole context of Sura IX. indeed makes it clear that “make war ” in the literal and not some metaphorical sense is meant .
Let us take another verse from this Sura :
Sura IX.5 “ Then , when the sacred months have passed away , kill the idolaters wherever you find them … ” These words are usually cited to show what fate awaits indolaters .
Well , what of the context ? The words immediately after these just quoted say , “ and seize them , besiege them and lie in ambush everywhere for them .” Ah , you might say , you have deliberately left out the words that come after those . Let us quote them then , “ If they repent and take to prayer and render the alms levy , allow them to go their way . God is forgiving and merciful ”. Surely these are words of tolerance , you plead . Hardly , they are saying , if they become Muslims then they will be left in peace .In fact the whole sura which has 129 verses ( approximately 14 pages in the Penguin translation by Dawood ), in other words the whole context , is totally intolerant , and is indeed the source of many totalitarian Islamic laws and principles , such as the concepts of Jihad and dhimmis , the latter proclaiming the inferior status of Christians and Jews in an Islamic state . All our quotes from the Arabic sources in Part One also , of course provide the historical context of raids , massacres , booty , and assassinations , which make it crystal clear that real bloody fighting is being advocated .
First the idolaters , how can you trust them ? Most of them are evil doers ( IX. 8 ); fight them ( IX. 12 , 14 ) ;they must not visit mosques ( IX. 18 ) ; they are unclean ( IX. 28 ) ; you may fight the idolaters even during the sacred months ( IX. 36 ) . “ It is not for the Prophet , and those who believe , to pray for the forgiveness of idolaters even though they may be near of kin after it has become clear they are people of hell-fire ”.( IX. 113 ) So much for forgiveness ! Even your parents are to be shunned if they do not embrace Islam : IX. 23 “ O you who believe ! Choose not your fathers nor your brethren for friends if they take pleasure in disbelief rather than faith .Whoso of you takes them for friends , such are wrong-doers ”. In other words if you are friendly with your parents who are not Muslims you are being immoral.
The theory of Jihad is derived from verses 5 and 6 already quoted but also from the following verses :
- 38 & 39 : Believers , why is it that when it is said to you : March in the cause of God ’, you linger slothfully in the land ? Are you content with this life in preference to the life to come ?Few indeed are the blessings of this life , compared to those of the life to come .
If you do not fight , He will punish you sternly , and replace you by other men .
- 41 : Whether unarmed or well-equipped , march on and fight for the cause of God , with your wealth and with your persons .
- 73 : Prophet , make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites and deal harshly with them .
The word that I have translated as fight is jahid . Some translators translate it as go forth or strive . Dawood translates it as fight , as does Penrice in his Dictionary and Glossary of the Koran , where it is defined as : To strive , contend with , fight –especially against the enemies of Islam . While Hans Wehr in his celebrated Arabic dictionary translates it as “ to wage holy war against the infidels ”.
As for the intolerance against Jews and Christians , and their inferior status as dhimmis we have IX verses 29 –35 :
“ Fight against such of those to whom the Scriptures were given as believe neither in God nor the Last Day , who do not forbid what God and His apostle have forbidden , and do not embrace the true faith , until they pay tribute out of hand and are utterly subdued .
“ The Jews say Ezra is the son of God , while the Christians say the Messiah is the son of God .Such are their assertions , by which they imitate the infidels of old . God confound them ! How perverse they are !
“ They make of their clerics and their monks , and of the Messiah , the son of Mary , Lords besides God ; though they were ordered to serve one God only .There is no god but Him .Exalted be He above those whom they deify besides Him !….
“ It is He who has sent forth His apostle with guidance and the true Faith to make it triumphant over all religions , howver much the idolaters may dislike it
“ O you who believe ! Lo ! many of the Jewish rabbis and the Christian monks devour the wealth of mankind wantonly and debar men from the way of Allah ;They who hoard up gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah , unto them give tidings of painful doom …”.
The moral of all the above is clear : Islam is the only true religion , Jews and Christians are devious ,and money-grubbing , who are not to be trusted , and even have to pay a tax in the most humiliating way . I do not think I need quote any more from Sura IX , although it goes on in this vein verse after verse .
PART THREE : THE KORAN
- Verses that Manifest Intolerance of and Incite Violence against Non-Muslims and Other Religions ; that Spread Mistrust of Different Communities .
- 216: Fighting is obligatory for you , much as you dislike it .
- 221: You shall not wed pagan women , unless they embrace the Faith . A believing slave-girl is better than an idolatress , although she may please you .Nor shall you wed idolaters , unless they embrace the Faith. A believing slave is better than an idolator , although he may please you .
- 28 : Let believers not make friends with infidels in preference to the faithful – he that does this has nothing to hope for from God .
- 85 : He that chooses a religion other than Islam , it will not be accepted from him and in the world to come he will be one of the lost .
- 118 : Believers , do not make friends with any but your own people .
- 142 : Did you suppose that you would enter Paradise before God has proved the men who fought for Him and endured with fortitude ?
- 155-158 Those of you who ran away on the day the two armies met must have been seduced by Satan on account of some evil they had done ….Believers , do not follow the example of the infidels , who say of their brothers when they meet death abroad or in battle : ‘ had they stayed with us they would not have died , nor would they have been killed ’. God will cause them to regret their words .
- 169 : Never think that those who were slain in the cause of God are dead .They are alive , and well-provided for by their Lord .
- 84 : Therefore fight for the cause of God .
- 95-96 : The believers who stay at home …are not equal to those who fight for the cause of God with their goods and their persons .
- 100 : He that flies his homeland for the cause of God shall find numerous places of refuge in the land and great abundance .He that leaves his dwelling to fight for God and His apostle and is then overtaken by death , shall be rewarded by God .God is forgiving and merciful .
- 101 : The unbelievers are your inveterate enemies
- 144 : Believers , do not choose the infidels rather than the faithful for your friends .
- 156- 157 :They [ the Christians ] denied the truth and uttered a monstrous falsehood against Mary
And because of their saying : We killed the Messiah Jesus son of Mary , Allah’s
messenger . They did not kill him nor did they crucify him , but they thought they
- 14 : With those who said they were Christians We made a covenant also , but they too have forgotten much of what they were enjoined .Therefore We stirred among them enmity and hatred , which shall endure till the Day of Resurrection , when God will declare to them all that they have done
- 36 : As for the unbelievers , if they offered all that the earth contains and as much besides to redeem themselves from the torment of the Day of Resurrection , it shall not be accepted from them .Theirs shall be a woeful punishment .
- 51: O you who believe ! Take not the Jews and the Christians for friends .They are friends one to another .He among you who takes them for friends is one of them.
- 72-73 : Unbelievers are those that say : ‘ God is the Messiah , the son of Mary ’….Unbelievers are those that say : ‘ God is one of three ’.
- 116 : Then God will say : ‘ Jesus , son of Mary , did you ever say to mankind : ‘Worship me and my mother as gods besides God ? ’
‘ Glory to You ’, he will answer , ‘ how could I ever say that to which I have no right ? If I had ever said so , You would have surely known it …’
- 22-24 :On the day when We gather them all together We shall say to the pagans : ‘ Where are your idols now , those whom you supposed to be your gods ?’ They will not argue , but say : ‘ By God , our Lord , we have never worshipped idols ’.
You shall see how they will lie against themselves and how the deities of their own invention will forsake them .
- 148 : The idolaters will say : ‘ Had God pleased , neither we nor our fathers would have served other gods besides Him ; nor would we have made anything unlawful ’.In like manner did those who have gone before them deny the Truth until they felt Our scourge .
- 12: God revealed His will to the angels , saying : ‘I shall be with you . Give courage to the believers . I shall cast terror into the hearts of the infidels . Strike off their heads , strike off the very tips of their fingers !’
23 VIII.13-14 : That was because they defied God and His apostle . He that defies
God and His apostle shall be sternly punished by God .We said to them : ‘ Taste this .
The scourge of the Fire await the unbelievers ’.
24 VIII.15-16 : Believers , when you encounter the infidels on the march , do not turn your backs to them in flight .If anyone on that day turns his back to them , except for tactical reasons , or to join another band , he shall incur the wrath of God and Hell shall be his home : an evel fate .
25.VIII.39 : Make war on them until idolatry shall cease and God’s religion shall reign supreme .
- 55: The basest creatures in the sight of God are the faithless who will not believe.
- 65 : Prophet , rouse the faithful to arms .If there are twenty steadfast men among you , they shall vanquish two hundred ; if there are a hundred ,they shall rout a thousand unbelievers , for they are devoid of understanding .
28.VIII.67 : It is not for any Prophet to have captives until he has made slaughter in the land .
29.IX.5 : When the sacred months are over slay the idolaters wherever you find them .Arrest them , besiege them , and lie in ambush everywhere for them . If they repent and take to prayer and render the alms levy , allow them to go their way . God is forgiving and merciful .
30.IX14 : Make war on them : God will chastise them at your hands and humble them
31.IX.17 : It ill becomes the idolaters to visit the mosques of God , for they are self-confessed unbelievers .Vain shall be their works , and in the Fire they shall abide for ever
- 23: Believers , do not befriend your fathers or your brothers if they choose unbelief in preference to faith . Wrongdoers are those that befriend them .
- 28: Believers , know that the idolaters are unclean . Let them not approach the Sacred Mosque after this year is ended .
- 29 : Fight against such of those to whom the Scriptures were given as believe neither in God nor the Last Day , who do not forbid what God and His apostle have forbidden , and do not embrace the true faith , until they pay tribute out of hand and are utterly subdued .
- 36 : But you fight against the idolaters in all these months since they themselves fight against you in all of them .
- 39: If you do not fight , He will punish you sternly , and replace you by other men .
- 41: Whether unarmed or well-equiped , march on and fight for the cause of God , with your wealth and with your persons .This will be best for you , if you but knew it .
- 73: Prophet , make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites and deal rigorously with them .Hell shall be their home : an evil fate .
- 111: God has purchased from the faithful their lives and worldly goods and in return has promised them the Garden.They will fight for the cause of God , slay and be slain .
- 123: Believers , make war on the infidels who dwell around you . Deal firmly with them . Know that God is with the righteous .
- 19-22: Here are two antagonists who contend about their Lord . Garments of fire have been prepared for the unbelievers .Scalding water shall be poured upon their heads , melting their skins and that which is in their bellies .They shall be lashed with rods of iron .
Whenever , in their anguish , they try to escape from Hell , back they shall be dragged , and will be told : “ Taste the torment of the Conflagration ”.
- 52: Do not yield to the unbelievers , but fight them with this , most strenuously .
- XLVII .4 : When you meet the unbelievers in the battlefield strike off their heads and , when you have laid them low , bind your captives firmly .Then grant them their freedom or take ransom from them until War shall lay down her burdens .
- LXI .9 : It is He who has sent His apostle with guidance and the Faith of Truth , so that He may exalt it above all religions , much as the pagans may dislike it .
- 6: The unbelievers among the People of the Book and the pagans shall burn for ever in the fire of Hell .They are the vilest of creatures .
- ANTI-JEWISH SENTIMENTS OF THE KORAN .
- II.61 : Wretchedness and baseness were stamped upon them ( that is , the Jews ) , and they were visited with wrath from Allah .That was because they disbelieved in Allah’s revelations and slew the prophets wrongfully . That was for their disobedience and transgression .
2.IV.44-46 : Have you not seen those who have received a portion of the Scripture ?They purchase error , and they want you to go astray from the path .
But Allah knows best who your enemies are , and it is sufficient to have Allah as a friend .It is sufficient to have Allah as a helper .
Some of the Jews pervert words from their meanings , and say , ‘ We hear and we disobey ’, and ‘ Hear without hearing ’ , and ‘ Heed us ! ’ twisting with their tongues and slandering religion .If they had said , ‘We have heard and obey ’, or ‘ Hear and observe us ’ it would have been better for them and more upright . But Allah had cursed them for their disbelief , so they believe not , except for a few .
- IV.160-161 : And for the evildoing of the Jews , We have forbidden them some good things that were previously permitted them , and because of their barring many from Allah’s way .
And for their taking usury which was prohibited for them , and because of their consuming people’s wealth under false pretense . We have prepared for the unbelievers among them a painful punishment .
4.IX.29-31 : Fight against such of those who have been given the Scripture [ Jews and Christians ] as believe not in Allah nor the Last Day , and forbid not that which Allah has forbidden by His Messenger , and follow not the religion of truth , until they pay the tribute [ poll-tax ] readily , and are utterly subdued .
The Jews say , “ Ezra is the son of Allah ”, and the Christians say , “ The Messiah is the son of Allah ” . Those are the words of their mouths , conforming to the words of the unbelievers before them . Allah attack them ! How perverse they are !
They have taken their rabbis and their monks as lords besides Allah , and so too the Messiah son of Mary , though they were commanded to serve but one God . There is no God but He . Allah is exalted above that which they deify beside Him .
- IX.34 : O you who believe ! Lo ! many of the ( Jewish ) rabbis and the ( Christian ) monks devour the wealth of mankind wantonly and debar ( men ) from the way of Allah .They who hoard up gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah , unto them give tidings of a painful doom
6.V.63-64 : Why do not the rabbis and the priests forbid their evil-speaking and devouring of illicit gain ? Verily evil is their handiwork .
The Jews say , “ Allah’s hands are fettered ”. Thei hands are fettered , and they are cursed for what they have said ! On the contrary , His hands are spread open .He bestows as He wills .That which has been revealed to you from your Lord will surely increase the arrogance and unbelief of many among them . We have cast enmity and hatred among them until the Day of Resurrection . Every time they light the fire of war , Allah extinguishes it .Thay hasten to spread corruption throughout the earth , but Allah does not love corrupters !
- V.70-71 : We made a covenant with the Israelites and sent forth apostles among them .But whenever an apostle came to them with a message that did not suit their fancies , some they accused of lying and others they put to death .They thought no harm would follow : they were blind and deaf .God is ever watching their actions .
8 . V.82 : Indeed , you will surely find that the most vehement of men in enmity to those who believe are the Jews and the polytheists .
- V.51: O you who believe ! Take not the Jews and the Christians for friends .They are friends one to another .He among you who takes them for friends is one of them .
- V.57 : O you who believe ! Choose not for friends such of those who received the Scripture [ Jews and Christians ] before you , and of the disbelievers , as make jest and sport of your religion .But keep your duty to Allah of you are true believers .
11 .V.59 : Say : O , People of the Scripture [ Jews and Christians ] ! Do you blame us for aught else than that we believe in Allah and that which is revealed unto us and that which was revealed aforetime , and because most of you are evil-doers ?
- 66 : Among them [ Jews and Christians ] there are people who are moderate , but many of them are of evil conduct .
- 26 : He brought down from their strongholds those who had supported them from among the People of the Book [ Jews of Bani Qurayza  ] and cast terror into their hearts , so that some you killed and others you took captive .
- 60 : Say :‘ Shall I tell you who will receive a worse reward from God ? Those whom  [ i.e. Jews ]God has cursed and with whom He has been angry , transforming them into apes and swine, and those who serve the devil .Worse is the plight of these , and they have strayed farther from the right path ’
C . CRUELTY , SADISM AND UNUSUAL PUNISHMENTS IN THE KORAN .
- 38 : As for the thief , both male and female , cut off their hands .It is the reward of their own deeds , an exemplary punishment from Allah .Allah is Mighty ,Wise .
- 33 : Those that make war against God and His apostle and spread disorder shall be put to death or crucified or have their hands and feet cut off on alternate sides , or be banished from the country.
- 15: If any of your women commit fornication , call in four witnesses from among yourselves against them ; if they testify to their guilt confine them to their houses till death overtakes them or till God finds another way for them .
- 2 The adulterer and adulteress shall each be given a hundred lashes .Let no pity for them cause you to disobey God , if you truly believe in God and the Last Day ; and let their punishment be witnessed by a number of believers .
- 30 : For the wrongdoers We have prepared a fire which will encompass them like the walls of a pavilion .When they cry out for help , they shall be showered with water as hot as molten brass , which will scald their faces .Evil shall be their drink , dismal their resting-place .
6.XXII.19-22: Here are two antagonists who contend about their Lord . Garments of fire have been prepared for the unbelievers .Scalding water shall be poured upon their heads , melting their skins and that which is in their bellies .They shall be lashed with rods of iron .
Whenever , in their anguish , they try to escape from Hell , back they shall be dragged , and will be told : “ Taste the torment of the Conflagration ”.
- 70 :Those who have denied the Book and the message We sent through Our apostles shall realize the truth hereafter : when , with chains and shackles round their necks , they shall be dragged through scalding water and burnt in the fire of Hell .
- ANTI-WOMAN SENTIMENTS OF THE KORAN .
- II.178 : O you who believe ! Retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the murdered ; the freeman for the freeman , and the slave for the slave , and the female for the female .
- II.228 : Women shall with justice have rights similar to those exercised against them , although men have a status above women . God is mighty and wise .
- II.282 :And call to witness , from among your men , two witnesses .And if two men be not ( at hand ) then a man and two women , of such as you approve as witnesses , so that if the one errs ( through forgetfulness ) the other will remember.
- IV.3: If you fear that you cannot treat orphans [ orphan girls ] with fairness , marry of the women , who seem good to you , two or three or four ; and if you fear that you cannot do justice ( to so many ) then one ( only ) or any slave girls you may own .This will make it easier for you to avoid injustice .
- IV.11: A male shall inherit twice as much as a female .
- IV.176:If a childless man have two sisters , they shall inherit two-thirds of his estate ; but if he have both brothers and sisters , the share of each male shall be that of two females .
- IV.34 : Men are in charge of women , because Allah has made the one of them to excel the other , and because they spend of their property ( for the support of women ) .So good women are the obedient , guarding in secret that which Allah has guarded. As for those from whom you fear rebellion , admonish them and banish them to beds apart , scourge [ beat ] them .Then if they obey you , seek not a way against them . Lo! Allah is ever High Exalted , Great.
- IV.43 : O you who believe ! Draw not near unto prayer when you are drunken , till you know that which you utter , nor when you are polluted , save when journeying upon the road , till you have bathed .And if you are ill , or on a journey , or one of you comes from the closet , or you have touched women , and you find not water , then go to high clean soil and rub your faces and your hands ( therewith ).Lo !Allah is Benign , Forgiving . [ se also Sura V.6 ]
- XXXIII.53 : If you ask his wives for anything , speak to them from behind a curtain .This more chaste for your hearts and their hearts .
- XXXIII.59 : Prophet , enjoin your wives , your daughters and the wives of true believers to draw their veils close round them .That is more proper , so that they ùay be recognized and not molested .God is forgiving and merciful .
- XLIII.16-18:Would God choose daughters for Himself and sons for you alone ? Yet when a new-born girl is announced to one of them his countenance darkens and he is filled with gloom .Would they ascribe to God females who adorn themselves with trinkets and are powerless in disputation ?
- XXXIII.50 : Prophet , We have made lawful to you the wives to whom you have granted dowries and the slave-girls whom God has given you as booty .
- IV.24 : [ Forbidden to you are ] married women , except those whom you own as slaves .[ See also XXIII .5 -6 ; LXX. 22-30 ]
- II.223 : Women are your fields : go , then ,into your fields from whichever side you please .
- WHY THE KORAN IS NOT THE WORD OF GOD .
According to al-Suyuti ( in Al-Itqan fi ‘ulum al-Qur’an , Cairo , 1967 , naw ‘ 10: I, 99-101 ) there are at least five passages in the Koran which cannot be attributed to God ,VI.104 and VI.114 are the words of Muhammad :
VI.104 : No mortal eyes can see Him , though He sees all eyes .He is benignant and all-knowing .
VI.114 : So that the hearts of those who have no faith in the life to come may be inclined to what they say and , being pleased , persist in their sinful ways .
In Sura XIX.64 , it is the angel Gabriel who is speaking . Translators often slip in “angels” in brackets after “We” , e.g. M.Pickthall .
XIX.64 : We do not come down from heaven save at the bidding of your Lord .To
Him belongs what is before us and behind us , and all that lies between .
( See also XIX.9 , 21 , LI.30 )
LI.50 is either spoken by the Prophet Muhammad , as Bell suggests , or a revealing angel as , Pickthall thinks : LI.50: “Therefore seek Allah , lo! I come from Him to warn you plainly .”
In the following verses , it is obviously angels who are speaking as is indicated by Pickthall in a footnote :
XXXVII.164-166 : “There is not one of Us but has his own position .Lo! We , even
We are they who set the ranks .Lo! We , even We are they who hymn His praise .”
Finally , Sura 1 , the Fatihah , is obviously a prayer offered TO God by the faithful .
PART FOUR : JIHAD .
The totalitarian nature of Islam is no where more apparent than in the concept of Jihad, the Holy War, whose ultimate aim is to conquer the entire world and submit it to the one true faith, to the law of Allah. To Islam alone has been granted the truth – there is no possibility of salvation outside it. It is the sacred duty – an incumbent religious duty established in the Koran and the Traditions – of all Muslims to bring it to all humanity. Jihad is a divine institution, enjoined specially for the purpose of advancing Islam. Muslims must strive, fight and kill in the name of God:
IX .5-6: “Kill those who join other gods with God wherever you may find them.”
IV.76: “Those who believe fight in the cause of God…”
VIII.12: “I will instill terror into the hearts of the Infidels, strike off their heads then, and strike off from them every fingertip.”
VIII.39-42: “Say to the Infidels: If they desist from their unbelief, what is now past shall be forgiven them; but if they return to it, they have already before them the doom of the ancients! Fight then against them till strife be at an end, and the religion be all of it God’s.”
II.256: “But they who believe, and who fly their country, and fight in the cause of God may hope for God’s mercy: and God is Gracious, Merciful.”
It is a grave sin for a Muslim to shirk the battle against the unbelievers, those who do will roast in hell:
VIII. 15, 16: “Believers, when you meet the unbelievers preparing for battle do not turn your backs to them. [ Anyone who does ] shall incur the wrath of God and hell shall be his home: an evil dwelling indeed “.
IX.39: “If you do not fight, He will punish you severely, and put others in your place.”
Those who die fighting for the only true religion, Islam, will be amply rewarded in the life to come:
IV.74: “Let those fight in the cause of God who barter the life of this world for that which is to come; for whoever fights on God’s path, whether he is killed or triumphs, We will give him a handsome reward.”
It is abundantly clear from many of the above verses that the Koran is not talking of metaphorical battles or of moral crusades; it is talking of the battle field. To read such blood thirsty injunctions in a Holy Book is shocking.
Mankind is divided into two groups – Muslims and non-Muslims. The Muslims are members of the Islamic community, the umma, who possess territories in the Dar ul Islam, the Land of Islam, where the edicts of Islam are fully promulgated. The non-Muslims are the Harbi, people of the Dar ul Harb, the Land of Warfare, any country belonging to the infidels which has not been subdued by Islam but which, nonetheless, is destined to pass into Islamic jurisdiction either by conversion or by war (Harb). All acts of war are permitted in the Dar ul Harb. Once the Dar ul Harb has been subjugated, the Harbi become prisoners of war. The imam can do what he likes to them according to the circumstances. Woe betide the city that resists and is then taken by the Islamic army by storm.. In this case, the inhabitants have no rights whatsoever, and as Sir Steven Runciman says in his “The Fall of Constantinople, 1453”:
“The conquering army is allowed three days of unrestricted pillage; and the former places of worship, with every other building, become the property of the conquering leader; he may dispose of them as he pleases. Sultan Mehmet [after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 allowed] his soldiers the three days of pillage to which they were entitled. They poured into the city…They slew everyone that they met in the streets, men, women and children without discrimination.. The blood ran in rivers down the steep streets…But soon the lust for slaughter was assuaged. The soldiers realized that captives and precious objects would bring them greater profits.”
In other cases, they are sold into slavery, exiled or treated as dhimmis, who are tolerated as second class subjects, as long as they pay a regular tribute.
It is common nowadays for the apologists of Islam, whether Muslims or their Western admirers, to interpret “Jihad” in the non-military sense of “moral struggle,” “moral striving.” But it is quite illegitimate to pretend that the Koran and the books on Islamic Law were talking about “moral crusades.” Rather as Rudolf Peters says in his definitive study of Jihad says, “In the books on Islamic Law, the word means armed struggle against the unbelievers, which is also a common meaning in the Koran.” Apologists of Islam, even when they do admit that real battles are being referred to, still pretend that the doctrine of Jihad only talks of “defensive measures,” that is, the apologists pretend that fighting is only allowed to defend Muslims, and that offensive wars are illegitimate. But again, this is not the classical doctrine in Islam; as Peters makes clear, the Sword Verses in the Koran were interpreted as unconditional commands to fight the unbelievers, and furthermore these Sword Verses abrogated all previous verses concerning intercourse with non-Muslims. Peters sums up the classical doctrine as:
“The doctrine of Jihad as laid down in the works on Islamic Law, developed out of the Koranic prescriptions and the example of the Prophet and the first caliphs, which is recorded in the hadith; The crux of the doctrine is the existence of one single Islamic state, ruling the entire umma [Muslim community]. It is the duty of the umma to expand the territory of this state in order to bring as many people under its rule as possible. The ultimate aim is to bring the whole earth under the sway of Islam and to extirpate unbelief : “Fight them until there is no persecution and the religion is God’s entirely.” (sura ii.193 ; viii.39). Expansionist jihad is a collective duty (fard ala al-kifaya), which is fulfilled if a sufficient number of people take part in it. If this is not the case, the whole umma [Muslim community] is sinning.”
Here are more bellicose verses from the Koran, the words of Allah telling Muslims to kill, murder on his behalf :
II.193: Fight against them until idolatry is no more and Allah’s religion reigns supreme.
- 216: Fighting is obligatory for you, much as you dislike it. But you may hate a thing although it is good for you, and love a thing although it is bad for you. Allah knows, but you do not.
IX.41: Whether unarmed or well-equipped, march on and fight for the cause of Allah, with your wealth and your persons. This is best for you, if you but knew it.
- 123: Believers! make war on the infidels who dwell around you let them find harshness in you.
LXVI..9: O Prophet! make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites and deal sternly with them hell shall be their home, evil their fate.
IX.73: O Prophet Make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites. Be harsh with them. Their ultimate abode is hell, a hapless journey’s end.
VIII.65: O Prophet! Exhort the believers to fight. If there are twenty steadfast men among you, they shall vanquish two hundred; and if there are a hundred, they shall rout a thousand unbelievers, for they are devoid of understanding.
XLVII.4-15: When you meet the unbelievers in the battlefield strike off their heads and when you have laid them low, bind your captives firmly ….
XXV.52: Do not yield to the unbelievers, but fight them strenuously with this Koran.
VIII.67: It is not for any Prophet to have captives until he has made slaughter in the land …
The cult of heroism and the cult of death is beautifully exemplified in the Muslim cult of martyrdom. The Koran promises Paradise with its seductive houris to all those who die in the cause of Islam :
- 4-15 “…As for those who are slain in the cause of Allah, He will not allow their works to perish. He will vouchsafe them guidance and ennoble their state; He will admit them to Paradise He has made known to them.”
IX.111: “Allah has purchased of their faithful lives and worldly goods and in return has promised them the Garden. They will fight for His cause, kill and be killed.”
III.169-171: “You must not think that those who were slain in the cause of Allah are dead. They are alive, and well-provided for by their Lord…. “
III.157-158 “If you should die or be killed in the cause of Allah, His mercy and forgiveness would surely be better than all the riches that amass. If you should die or be killed, before Him you shall all be gathered.”
Hadith on Jihad from Bukhari : al-Bukhari [ died 870 C.E.] , Sahih ( trans.Dr M.M.Khan ),Kitab Bhavan , New Delhi , 1987 , 9 , Vols.
From Volume 1:
1:35 Muhammad said, “The person who participates in (holy battles) in Allah’s cause and nothing compels him to do so except belief in Allah and His Apostles, will be recompensed by Allah either with a reward, or booty (if he survives) or will be admitted to Paradise (if he is killed in the battle as a martyr). Had I not found it difficult for my followers, then I would not remain behind any sariya [army unit] going for Jihad and I would have loved to be martyred in Allah’s cause and then made alive, and then martyred and then made alive and then again martyred in His cause.”
From Volume 4:
4:41 Abdullah bin Masud said, “I asked Allah’s Apostle, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! What is the best deed?’ He replied, ‘To offer the prayers at their early stated fixed times.’ I asked, ‘What is next in goodness?’ He replied, ‘To be good and dutiful to your parents.’ I further asked, ‘What is next in goodness?’ He replied, ‘To participate in Jihad in Allah’s cause.’”
4:42 (& 4:311) Muhammad said, “There is no Hijra (i.e. migration from Mecca to Medina) after the conquest (of Mecca), but Jihad and good intention [to fight in Jihad] remain; and if you are called (by the Muslim ruler) for fighting, go forth immediately.”
4:44 A man came to Muhammad and said, “Instruct me as to such a deed as equals Jihad (in reward).” He replied, “I do not find such a deed.” Then he added, “Can you, while the Muslim fighter is in the battle-field, enter your mosque to perform prayers without cease and fast and never break your fast?” The man said, “But who can do that?”
4:45 Someone asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! Who is the best among the people?” Allah’s Apostle replied, “A believer who strives his utmost in Allah’s cause with his life and property.” They asked, “Who is next?” He replied, “A believer who stays in one of the mountain paths worshiping Allah and leaving the people secure from his mischief.”
4:46 Muhammad said, “… Allah guarantees the He will admit the Mujahid [one who fights in Jihad] in His cause into Paradise if he is killed, otherwise He will return him to his home safely with rewards and war booty.”
4:49 Muhammad said, “Last night two men came to me (in a dream) and made me ascend a tree and then admitted me into a better and superior house, better of which I have never seen. One of them said, ‘This house is the house of martyrs.’”
4:50 Muhammad said, “A single endeavour (of fighting) in Allah’s cause in the forenoon or in the afternoon is better than the world and whatever is in it.”
4:53 Muhammad said, “Nobody who dies and finds good from Allah (in the hereafter) would wish to come back to this world even if he were given the whole world and whatever is in it, except the martyr who, on seeing the superiority of martyrdom, would like to come back to the world and get killed again (in Allah’s cause).”
4:72 Mohammad said, “Nobody who enters Paradise likes to go back to the world even if he got everything on the earth, except a Mujahid [one who fights in Jihad] who wishes to return to the world so that he may be martyred ten times because of the dignity he receives (from Allah).”
4:216 Muhammad said, “Were it not for the fear that it would be difficult for my followers, I would not have remained behind any Sariya (army unit) but I don’t have riding camels and have no other means of conveyance to carry them on, and it is hard for me that my companions should remain behind me. No doubt I wish I could fight in Allah’s cause and be martyred and come to life again to be martyred and come to life once more.”
4:65 A man came to the Prophet and asked, “A man fights for war booty; another fights for fame and a third fights for showing off. Which of them fights in Allah’s cause?” The prophet said, “He who fights that Allah’s Word (i.e. Islam) should be superior, fights in Allah’s cause.”
4:66 Muhammad said, “Anyone whose both feet get covered with dust in Allah’s cause will not be touched by the (hell) fire.”
4:72b Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba said, “Our Prophet told us about the message of our Lord that “… whoever amongst us is killed will go to Paradise.” Umar asked the Prophet, “Is it not true that our men who are killed will go to Paradise and their’s (i.e. those of the pagan’s) will go to the (hell) fire?” The Prophet said, “Yes.”
4:73 Muhammad said, “Know that Paradise is under the shades of swords.”
4:210 Once Allah’s Apostle (during a holy battle), waited till the sun had declined and then he got up among the people and said, “O people! Do not wish to face the enemy (in a battle) and ask Allah to save you (from calamities) but if you should face the enemy, then be patient and let it be known to you that Paradise is under the shades of swords.” He then said, “O Allah! The Revealer of the (holy) Book, the Mover of the clouds, and Defeater of Al-Ahzab (i.e. the clans of infidels), defeat the infidels and bestow victory upon us.”
4:80 Muhammad said, “Allah welcomes two men with a smile. One of whom kills the other and both of them enter Paradise. One fights in Allah’s cause and gets killed. Later on Allah forgives the killer (i.e. he embraces Islam) who also get martyred (in Allah’s cause).”
4:96 Muhammad said, “He who prepares a ghazi going in Allah’s cause is (given a reward equal to that of) a ghazi; and he who looks after properly the dependents of a ghazi going in Allah’s cause is (given a reward equal to that of) a ghazi.”
4:127 Aisha (one of Muhammad’s wives) said, “I requested the Prophet to permit me to participate in Jihad, but he said, ‘Your Jihad is the performance of Hajj [the annual pilgrimage to Mecca].’”
4:131 Anas said, “On the day (of the battle) of Uhud when (some) people retreated and left the Prophet I saw Aisha bint Abi Bakr and um Sulaim [two women], with their robes tucked up so that the bangles around their ankles were visible hurrying with their water skins. Then they would pour the water in the mouths of the people, and return to fill the water skins again and came back again to pour water in the mouths of the people.”
4:137 Muhammad said, “… Paradise is for him who holds the reins of his horse to strive in Allah’s cause, with his hair unkempt and feet covered with dust. If he is appointed in the vanguard, he is perfectly satisfied with his post of guarding, and if he is appointed in the rearguard, he accepts his post with satisfaction …”
4:146 Muhammad said, “A time will come when groups of people will go for Jihad and it will be asked, ‘Is there anyone amongst you who has enjoyed the company of the Prophet?’ The answer will be ‘Yes.’ Then they will be given victory (by Allah). Then a time will come when it will be asked, ‘Is there anyone amongst you who has enjoyed the company of the companions of the Prophet?’ It will be said, ‘Yes,’ and they will be given the victory (by Allah). Then a time will come when it will be said, ‘Is there anyone amongst you who has enjoyed the company of the companions of the companions of the Prophet?’ It will be said, ‘Yes,’ and they will be given victory (by Allah).”
4:147 Sahl bin Sa’d As-Sa’idi said, “Allah’s Apostle and the pagans faced each other and started fighting. When Allah’s Apostle returned to his camp and when the pagans returned to their camp, somebody talked about a man amongst the companions of Allah’s Apostle who would follow and kill with his sword any pagan going alone. He said, ‘Nobody did his job (i.e. fighting) so properly today as that man.’ Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Indeed, he is amongst the people of the (hell) fire.’ A man amongst the people said, ‘I shall accompany him (to watch what he does).’ Thus he accompanied him, and wherever he stood, he would stand with him, and wherever he ran, he would run with him. Then the (brave) man got wounded seriously and he decided to bring about his death quickly. He planted the blade of the sword in the ground directing its sharp end towards his chest between his two breasts. Then he leaned on the sword and killed himself. The other man came to Allah’s Apostle and said, ‘I testify that you are Allah’s Apostle.’ The Prophet asked, ‘What has happened?’ He replied, ‘(It is about) the man whom you had described as one of the people of the (hell) fire. The people were greatly surprised at what you said, and I said, “I will find out his reality for you.” So, I came out seeking him. He got severely wounded, and hastened to die by planting the blade of his sword in the ground directing its sharp end towards his chest between his two breasts. Then he leaned on his sword and killed himself.’ Then Allah’s Apostle said, ‘A man may seem to the people as if he were practicing the deeds of the people of Paradise while in fact he is from the people of the (hell) fire, another may seem to the people as if he were practicing the deeds of the people of hell (fire), while in fact he is from the people of Paradise.’
4:162b Muhammad said, “My livelihood is under the shade of my spear, and he who disobeys my orders will be humiliated by paying Jizya.”
4:175 Umair said, “Um Haram informed us that she heard the Prophet saying, ‘Paradise is granted to the first batch of my followers who will undertake a naval expedition.’ Um Haram added, ‘I said, O Allah’s Apostle! Will I be amongst them?’ He replied, ‘You are amongst them.’ The Prophet then said, ‘The first army amongst my followers who will invade Caesar’s city will be forgiven their sins.’ I asked, ‘Will I be one of them, O Allah’s Apostle?’ He replied in the negative.”
4:179 Muhammad said, “The hour will not be established until you fight with the Turks; people with small eyes, red faces, and flat noses. Their faces will look like shields coated with leather. The hour will not be established till you fight with people whose shoes are made of hair.”
4:182 Ali said, “When it was the day of the battle of Al-Ahzab (i.e. the clans), Allah’s Apostle said, ‘O Allah! Fill their (i.e. the infidels’) houses and graves with fire as they busied us so much that we did not perform the prayer (i.e. ‘Asr) till the sun had set.’”
4:186 Aisha said, “Once the Jews came to the Prophet and said, ‘Death be upon you.’ So I cursed them. The Prophet said, ‘What is the matter?’ I said, ‘Have you not heard what they said?’ The Prophet said, ‘Have you not heard what I replied (to them)? (I said), (“The same is upon you.”)’”
4:192 On the day of the battle of Khaibar, Sahl bin Sa’d heard Muhammad say, “I will give the flag to a person at whose hands Allah will grant victory.” So, the companions of the Prophet got up, wishing eagerly to see to whom the flag will be given, and everyone of them wished to be given the flag. But the Prophet asked for Ali. Someone informed him that he was suffering from eye-trouble. So, he ordered them to bring Ali in front of him. Then the Prophet spat in his eyes and his eyes were cured immediately as if he had never any eye-trouble. Ali said, “We will fight with them (i.e. infidels) till they become like us (i.e. Muslims).” The Prophet said, “Be patient, till you face them and invite them to Islam and inform them of what Allah has enjoined upon them. By Allah! If a single person embraces Islam at your hands (i.e. through you), that will be better for you than the red camels.”
4:193 Anas said, “Whenever Allah’s Apostle attacked some people, he would never attack them till it was dawn. If he heard the adhan (i.e. call for prayer) he would delay the fight, and if he did not hear the adhan, he would attack them immediately after dawn.”
4:195 Anas said, “The Prophet set out for Khaibar and reached it at night. He used not to attack if he reached the people at night, till the day broke. So, when the day dawned, the Jews came out with their bags and spades. When they saw the Prophet they said, ‘Muhammad and his army!’ The Prophet said, ‘Allahu-Akbar! (Allah is Greater) and Khaibar is ruined, for whenever we approach a nation (i.e. enemy to fight) then it will be a miserable morning for those who have been warned.’”
4:196 Mohammad said, “I have been ordered to fight with the people till they say, ‘None has the right to be worshiped but Allah,’ and whoever says, ‘None has the right to be worshiped by Allah,’ his life and property will be saved by me except for Islamic law, and his accounts will be with Allah (either to punish him or to forgive him.)”
4:198 Ka’b bin Malik said, “Whenever Allah’s Apostle intended to carry out a Ghazwa, he would use an equivocation to conceal his real destination till it was the Ghazwa of Tabuk which Allah’s Apostle carried out in very hot weather. As he was going to face a very long journey through a wasteland and was to meet and attack a large number of enemies. So, he made the situation clear to the Muslims so that they might prepare themselves accordingly and get ready to conquer their enemy.”
4:220 Muhammad said, “… I have been made victorious with terror (cast in the hearts of the enemy) …”
4:248 Abdullah bin Amr said, “A man came to the Prophet asking his permission to take part in Jihad. The Prophet asked him, ‘Are your parents alive?’ He replied in the affirmative. The Prophet said to him, ‘Then exert yourself in their service.’”
4:256 As-Sa’b bin Jaththama said, “The Prophet … was asked whether it was permissible to attack the pagan warriors at night with the probability of exposing their women and children to danger. The Prophet replied, ‘They (i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans).’”
4:259 Abu Huraira said, “Allah’s Apostle sent us in a mission (i.e. an army-unit) and said, ‘If you find so-and-so and so-and-so, burn both of them with fire.’ When we intended to depart, Allah’s Apostle said, ‘I have ordered you to burn so-and-so and so-and-so, and it is none but Allah Who punishes with fire, so, if you find them, kill them.’”
4:260 Ikrima said, “Ali burnt some people and this news reached Ibn Abbas, who said, ‘Had I been in his place I would not have burnt them, as the Prophet said, “Don’t punish (anybody) with Allah’s punishment.” No doubt, I would have killed them, for the Prophet said, “If somebody (a Muslim) discards his religion, kill him.”’”
4:261 Anas bin Malik said, “A group of eight men from the tribe of Ukil came to the Prophet and then they found the climate of Medina unsuitable for them. So, they said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Provide us with some milk.’ Allah’s apostle said, ‘I recommend that you should join the herd of camels.’ So they went and drank the urine and the milk of the camels (as a medicine) till they became healthy and fat. Then they killed the shepherd and drove away the camels, and they became unbelievers after they were Muslims. When the Prophet was informed by a shouter for help, he sent some men in their pursuit, and before the sun rose high, they were brought and he had their hands and feet cut off. Then he ordered for nails which were heated and passed over their eyes, and they were left in the Harra (i.e. rocky land in Medina). They asked for water, and nobody provided them with water till they died.”
4:264 Al-Bara bin Azib said, “Allah’s Apostle sent a group of Ansari men to kill Abu-Rafi’. One of them set out and entered their (i.e. the enemies’) fort. That man said, ‘I hid myself … and came upon Abu Rafi’ and said, “O Abu Rafi’.” When he replied me, I proceeded towards the voice and hit him. He shouted and I came out to come back, pretending to be a helper. I said, “O Abu Rafi’,” changing the tone of my voice … I asked him, “What happened to you?” He said, “I don’t know who came to me and hit me.” Then I drove my sword into his belly and pushed it forcibly till it touched the bone. Then I came out, filled with puzzlement and went towards a ladder of theirs in order to get down but I fell down and sprained my foot. I came to my companions and said, “I will not leave till I hear the wailing of the women.” So, I did not leave till I heard the women bewailing Abu Rafi’, the mercant of Hijaz. Then I got up, feeling no ailment, (and we proceeded) till we came upon the Prophet and informed him.’” [4:267,269 Muhammad said, “War is deceit.”
4:270 Jabir bin Abdullah said, “The Prophet said, ‘Who is ready to kill Ka’b bin Al-Ashraf who has really hurt Allah and His Apostle?’ Muhammad bin Maslama said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Do you like me to kill him?’ He replied in the affirmative. So, Muhammad bin Maslama went to him (i.e. Ka’b) and said, ‘This person (i.e. the Prophet) has put us to task and asked us for charity.’ Ka’b replied, ‘By Allah, you will get tired of him.’ Muhammad said to him, ‘We have followed him, so we dislike to leave him till we see the end of his affair.’ Muhammad bin Maslama went on talking to him in this way till he got the chance to kill him.”
4:280b Anas bin Malik said, “Allah’s Apostle entered (Mecca) in the year of the conquest (of Mecca) wearing a helmet over his head. After he took it off, a man came and said, ‘Ibn Khatal is clinging to the curtains of the Ka’ba.’ The Prophet said, ‘Kill him.’”
4:286 Salarma bin Al-Akwa said, “An infidel spy came to the Prophet while he was on a journey. The spy sat with the companions of the Prophet and started talking and then went away. The Prophet said, (to his companions), ‘Chase and kill him.’ So, I killed him.”
4:288 Ibn Abbas said, “… The Prophet on his death-bed, gave three orders saying, ‘Expel the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, …’”
4:317 Abdullah said, “when the Prophet returned (from Jihad), he would say Takbir thrice and add, ‘We are returning, if Allah wishes, with repentance and worshiping and praising (our Lord) and prostrating ourselves before our Lord. Allah fulfilled His promise and helped His slave, and He alone defeated the (infidel) clans.’”
From Volume 9:
9:50 (& 4:283) Ali said, “… no Muslim should be killed … for killing a kafir (disbeliever).”
9:57 Some Zanadiqa (atheists) were brought to Ali and he burnt them. The news of this event, reached Ibn Abbas who said, “If I had been in his place, I would not have burnt them, as Allah’s Apostle forbade it, saying, ‘Do not punish anybody with Allah’s punishment (fire).’ I would have killed them according to the statement of Allah’s Apostle, ‘Whoever changed his Islamic religion, then kill him.’”
CLASSICAL MUSLIM THINKERS ON JIHAD .
Finally, on the obligation of Jihad, I shall quote from two Muslim thinkers greatly admired in the West. First Ibn Khaldun in his Muqaddimah writes: “In the Muslim community, the holy war is religious duty, because of the universalism of the Muslim mission and (the obligation to) convert everybody to Islam either by persuasion or by force.”
And now Averroes, a much romanticized figure in the West :
“According to the majority of scholars, the compulsory nature of the jihad is founded on sura II.216: ‘Prescribed for you is fighting, though it is hateful to you.’… The obligation to participate in the jihad applies to adult free men who have the means at their disposal to go to war and who are healthy, … Scholars agree that all polytheists should be fought; This founded on sura VIII.39: Fight them until there is no persecution and the religion is God’s entirely”…. Most scholars are agreed that, in his dealing with captives, various policies are open to the Imam. He may pardon them, enslave them, kill them, or release them either on ransom or as dhimmi [non-Muslim, second class subject of the Islamic state], in which latter case the released captive is obliged to pay poll-tax (jizya) ….Sura VIII.67 “It is not for any Prophet to have prisoners until he make wide slaughter in the land.” as well as the occasion when this verse was revealed [viz.the captives of Badr] would prove that it is better to kill captives than to enslave them. The Prophet himself would in some cases kill captives outside the field of battle, while he would pardon them in others. Women he used to enslave …. The Muslims are agreed that the aim of warfare against the People of the Book …is two-fold :either conversion to Islam or payment of poll-tax –jizya). This is based on Sura IX.29 “.
Source : Averroes [ 1126-1198 ], Bidayat al-Mujtahid wa-Nihayat al-Muqtasid , Mustafa al-Babi al-Halabi , Cairo , 1960 , translated in R .Peters , Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam , A Reader . Princeton , 1996 pp.27-40.
THE COMPLETE LIST OF SITES AN ALTERNATIVE CRITICAL VIEW ON ISLAM .
“Kafir” of AntiJihad created the following list of sites offering an alternative view on Islam. Since then, new sites have been added by “Raven” and “Kovac”, who are also members of the same organization.The most current version of this list can be found at: www.geocities.com/listislam
Most, though not all, of the websites devoted to criticising Islam are hosted and written by Christians, Hindus, or Jews. If you bear in mind, and thus make allowances for the particular viewpoint from which they are written, then you will find most of the links below of immense value.
I do not necessarily endorse or agree with the tone or the entire contents of all the websites listed below . I have simply tried to give a comprehensive list of sites critical of Islam . But of course , to the extent that they do criticise Islam in a rational way , bringing textual , historical , philological and philosophical arguments to bear on Islamic doctrine and practice , I do approve of them .
- About Isa
Description: Tells Muslims about Jesus
Review: User friendly and available in Indonesian and Turkish language. Please look out for an excellent comparison between the Bible and the Koran. Interesting essays on known forgeries such as the ‘Gospel’ of Barnabas
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
2 AIME : “d’Ailleurs ou d’Ici Mais Ensemble
Description: AIME was created in 1997 aimed at the North African World , to promote secularism , equality between women and men , to reject fundamentalism and to take a critical look at religion.
Review: In French. Founded by a courageous Tunisian woman, Samia Labidi whose brother was an Islamic terrorist at one point in his life .The site cannot as yet take on Islam directly, though it does advocate atheism quite openly. Launched a magazine in 1999 to spread its ideas. Needs to be encouraged.
- Al Nour
Description: Tells Muslims about Jesus
Review: Easy to understand discussions on the fallacies of Islam and common Islamic allegations about the Bible.
- America at War
Description: Salem the Soldier’s Homepage
Review: This site tells us about America and its war against Islamic terrorism.
Contact : email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
- An Open Challenge to my Muslim Friends
Description: Questioning the Koran.
Review: Funny facts about Islam and astronomy. Includes a great drawing.
Contact : email@example.com
- Answering Islam
Description:. This is not only the best Christian website, but probably the best website of all Internet, devoted to refuting, and criticising Islamic claims, doctrines, history, and the Koran. It is well-documented, and is one of the few anti-Islamic websites that is very careful to give the proper references, and thus one has all the more confidence in its pronouncements. It is also very fair in that it gives ample space to Muslims to reply, and scrupulously removes any material that is shown to be erroneous
URL: http://www.answering-islam.org ;Germany mirror: http://www.answering-islam.de/
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com
- Answering the Claims of Islam
Description: Small site, many links.
Review: The links are good. Several of the Islamic claims are addressed in a non-biased manner. The link about Koran and Yemeni scrolls are interesting.
Contact : Not available
Perspective: Kafir Unity
Description: An international network promoting unity among those who face the threat of Islamic terror
Review: Cool site for a crash course in resisting terrorism. Great links and forums. Only site with active campaigns
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- AntiJihad : North America
Perspective: North American
Description: North American branch of AntiJihad.
Review: Call to North Americans to unite.
Contact : USKAFIR@yahoo.com
- AntiJihad : West and South Asia
Perspective: West and South Asian
Description: West and South Asian branch of AntiJihad.
Review: Call to Israelis, Hindus and other kafirs to unite.
Contact : Israeli_guy@hotmail.co.il
- Arguments against Islam by an Ex-Muslim
Description: Contains quotes from the Koran and Hadith. Made by a young Turk who has left Islam.
Review: Many interesting hadiths.
Contact : email@example.com
- Aweful truth about Islam
Description: Small site, great facts
Review: Systematically dissects Islamist duplicity
Contact : N/A
- Bat Ye’or
Description: Good site, great facts
Review: Thoughts on Islam by an Egyptian woman
Contact : N/A
- Behind the Veil
Description: An online book
Review: The Truth-seekers (both Kafirs and Moslems) will find this book interesting. This is a thorough documentation on Islamic doublespeak and fallacies. Also see Site #6.
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Bharatvani Institute
Description: Hindu website, with on-line books, by K. Elst, R. Swarup, Sita Ram Goel, critical of Islam.
Review: An informative and a must visit site for every Hindu who wishes to rediscover his roots and dharma.
Contact : email@example.com
- Blacks Who Oppose Islam
Description: Still under construction. Facts on various issues, like modern slavery in the Islamic world…
Review: Really interesting site, will add a full review when all sections have been completed.
Contact : N/A (please check the site)
- Chechen Truth
Description: Tells the truth about the Muslim-Russian war.
Review: Informative site with many photos.
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- CHICK Publications
Description: Publishing house offering a lot of information about Islam
Review: Useful resource
Contact : N/A
- Christliche (1) Christliche (2) Christliche (3)
Description: They expose Islam and the strategies this cult uses to conquer European/Western societies.
Review: Great website in German
Contact : email@example.com
20.Committee to Defend Women’s Rights in the Middle East –CDWRME
Perspective: Secular , Feminist , Women’s Rights
Description: Committee to Defend Women’s Rights in the Middle East – CDWRME- has been formed to promote women’s rights and equality in the Middle East. We believe that secularism and the separation of religion from the state are the basic pre-conditions for women’s liberation in the Middle East. We believe in the universality of women’s rights and combat the idea of cultural relativism that justifies women’s oppression under the rule of Islamic law and Islamic governments. We try to create a network of women’s rights activists in the Middle Eastern countries, we campaign around women’s civil rights and individual freedom, and support the just struggle of women in the Middle East.
Review: The treatment of Women in Islamic countries remains inhuman, but there are courageous activists who battle for Women’s Rights despite all sorts of dangers, obstacles and prejudices.
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
Description: The official site of the persecuted (Christian) Copts in (Muslim) Egypt
Review: Daily documentation of Islamic atrocities on Christians of Africa, with links.
Contact : email@example.com
- Critical Analysis of Islam
Description: Christian-Islamic thoughts
Review: Good links. The testimony of ex-Muslims make good reading. Also available in Arabic
Contact : N/A
- Crusader and Jew Press
Description: About Israel and the US.
Review: Many interesting articles.
Contact : N/A
- Crusaders Club
Description: We, the Undersigned … do commit ourselves, our wealth, and our families to join in a Holy Crusade to fight against Islam and its false god, false prophet, and false book.
Review: A great Christian site that knows what the real root of Muslim terrorism is!
Contact : No email given ; please see site for ‘Contact us’ link.
- Democratic Alliance
Description: Hadiths and links
Review: The site brings back memories of 9/11 and why it happened
Contact : N/A
Description: (We) still endure the ravaging effects of an ideological movement that is intolerant, discriminatory, racist and even genocidal: a Radical Islamist-Jihad culture.
- Die konservative Informationsbasis im Internet: Islam
Description: This site offers a number of essays on the subject of the Islamization of Europe. In German.
Review: Informative, great!
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Dr. Homa Darabi Foundation
Perspective: Women’s rights
Description: Pictures, campaigns, articles and link
Review: A great website for women wanting to learn the hidden face of Islam
Contact : email@example.com
- Enough Net
Description: Pictures, campaigns, articles and links
Review: Great Israeli website
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Faith Freedom Foundation
Description: HUGE site by a former Muslim. Has everything one might need.
Review: E-X-C-E-L-L-E-N-T ! Also available in Indonesian.
URL: http://www.faithfreedom.org/ ;Mirrors: http://www.golshan.com/ , http://www.humanists.net/alisina/
Contact : email@example.com
Description: Site of Forum against Islamization
Review: This Scandinavian site is mainly in Norwegian, with some information in English
Description: Well indexed documentation of holocausts and genocide in the name of Islam
Review: Even though this site is in Norwegian, the pictures do not need a language
- Freedom Society
Review: Good links for global war against terrorism
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Freeman Center
Perspective: A Pro-Israeli site.
Description: Very much a pro-Israeli site with learned articles defending a tough approach to the problems in the Middle East.
Review: Very good articles on the theory and practice of Islamic terrorism, particularly from Y.Bodansky.
Contact : BSaphir@aol.com
- Freethought Mecca
Description: A very funny, and totally irreverent look at Islam and Christianity.
Review: Cold facts and logical reasoning unravelling hot rumours and claims
Contact : email@example.com
- Geo Islam
Description: Exposes Islamic teachings and goals in French
Review: Exposes Islamic world-wide expansion via immigration.
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Hammihan Irani
Perspective: Secular Democratic
Description: Articles, hadiths and links on Islam and theocratic Iran
Review: Excellent content
URL: http://www.geocities.com/hammihanirani/ ; Mirror: http://hammihan.20fr.com/
Contact : N/A
- Hindu Awareness!
Description: Essays and pictures
Review: Well written essays. The essay on Hindu-Muslim marriages is a must read for everyone.
Contact : N/A
- Hindu Sitah
Description: Real eye opener about muslim jihadi activities in south Asia. Call for Hindus to unite and protect their motherland.
Review: Hindus from India tell us about their struggle with Islamic and Koranic terrorism.
Contact : email@example.com
- Hindu Holocaust Museum
Description: The massacres perpetrated by Muslims in India are unparalleled in history…
Review: Sheds light upon a virtually unknown part of history.
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Hindu Struggle
Description: Islam Exposed, Good Collection of Quotes.
Review: A huge collection of hateful quotes from Koran
Contact : email@example.com
Description: One stop shop for details on Islamic atrocities
Review: A huge archive, frequently updated and an excellent forum!
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
Perspective: Indonesian Christians and Buddhists
Description: Pictures, eyewitness accounts and details on recent atrocities against “Kafirs” in Indonesia
Review: Warning: Has graphic details and pictures of atrocities against Christians in Indonesia
Contact : email@example.com
- Human Rights Abuses in Islamic Countries
Description: Multi-ethnic, multi-religious organization committed to combating abuses in Muslim countries, focuses on Islamic Law.
Review: Good read. The inflammatory hadiths and abuse of human rights are clearly documented.
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
Description: Tells Muslims about Jesus
Review: Easy read for Moslems who wish to renounce violence
Contact : N/A
- Into the Light
Description: Tells Muslims about Jesus
Review: Thought provoking Muslim-Christian discussions
Contact : email@example.com
- Iran Freedom
Perspective: Nationalist, Zoroastrian
Description: Anti-Islamic Iranian-Nationalist site
Review: Cool effects, nice summary on the founder of Islam and excellent links
Contact : N/A, please check site.
Description: The Institute for the Secularization of Islamic Society (ISIS) has been formed to promote the ideas of rationalism, secularism, democracy and human rights within Islamic society.
Review: A good source of quotations, event-documentations and skepticism. This site addresses issues ailing the current Islamic world.
Contact : info@SecularIslam.org
Description: A brief history of Islam
Review: Annoying structure, but includes a lovely song!
Contact : N/A
- Islam challenges Christianity
Description: Questions and contradictions on Koran
Review: Good layout, easy read, answers Islamic and Koranic ‘miracles’
URL: http://members.aol.com/AlHaqq4u/ ; Mirror: http://debate.domini.org./newton/
Contact : N/A
- Islam Exposed
Description: Does what it says: exposes concealed truths
Review: Beautiful layout
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Islam Exposed (Archives Only)
Description: Big archive, something for everyone.
Review: Great resource.
Contact : email@example.com
- Islam Faith Examined!
Description: A Resource for the Study of Islam
Review: Great material and good read on claims of Islam and Prophethood
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Islamic Society
Description: Open directory and links to Islamic literature
Review: Great links, arguments
Contact : N/A
- Islamic Studies in Christian Perspective
Description: Studies Islam from a Christian Perspective, and obviously tries to convert Muslims
Review: Great web page, nice design, cool material on Islam and Koran
Contact : email@example.com
- Islamic Terror sites on the Web
Description: Gives a list of Islamic Websites which promote Jihad.
Review: Great web page, Links updated regularly. Feel Free to send them Jihadi websites you come across.
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
Description: A Danish site with an alternative view on Islam, and Danish Islam-related news. In Danish.
Review: Excellent site for Scandinavians!
Contact : N/A
Description: Persecution of Christians by Islam
Review: Great resource for persecuted Christians and Muslim converts into Christianity. Well documented atrocities with insights into the Jihad theory.
Contact : N/A
- Islam Review
Description: This site is about Islam and not Muslims
Review: Good web design, good material and good read. An eye-opener to the mistreatment of blacks in Islam
Contact : Feedback@IslamReview.com
- Islam: the greatest threat
Description: Discusses “THE GREATEST AND MOST IMMEDIATE THREAT TO HUMAN CIVILIZATION”
Review: Good page design, easy read, a ‘gumbo’ of quotations from The Bible, Hindu-Islamist dialogues and Koran
Contact : email@example.com
- Islam via Hadis
Description: A book by Ram Swaroop
Review: Rudimentary web design but great material on Islam and Islamists
Contact : N/A
- Jesus is lord
Description: Facts notebook
Review: Basic design but great material on Islamists. Interesting facts on black Islamic movement
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Jewish Task Force
Description: Pro-America, Israel and India
Review: Right-wing, patriotic Jewish website. Selective verses from Koran. Facts backed by pictures on islamic barbarism.
Contact : N/A
- Kaffir Resistance
Description: Our silence has only encouraged the Jehadis. If you wish to know what might happen to the US in future, take a good look at the problems faced by Israel and India. Focuses on South Asia.
Review: New site, will add review soon.
Contact : J_A_S_O_N67@hotmail.com
- Kommt der Islam?
Description: This site describe it as fascism wearing the mask of religion. It also shows the difference between Christianity and Islam, and calls for kafirs to unite. In German.
Review: Really interesting site, it’s great that it suggests what can be done about the problem…
Contact : N/A
- Koran and Kafir
Description: Online book by A. Ghosh; “All that a kafir needs to know about Islam but is scared to ask”
Review: The page design could be better but the material is fantastic
Contact : webmaster@RealIslam.org
- Let us reason
Description: Answers to Islamic questions and claims
Review: Good material
Contact : email@example.com
- Light of Life
Description: Investigates Islam from a Christian point of view.
Review: Great web design, good material comparing Allah with God from a Christian perspective
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- L’islam, religion ou systeme politique?
Description: Defines Islamic ideology and roots in French.
Review: Basic web design, good discussions on Islam as Imperialism rather than a peaceful religion, excellent references
Contact : N/A
- Lone Wolf
Description: Investigates ‘scientific’ claims of Islam
Review: Basic design, advanced material
Contact : email@example.com
- Loving a Muslim
Description: Support group, memoirs
Review: Good page design, rivetting stories
Contact : N/A
- Marrying a Middle Easterner
Perspective: Western woman’s
Description: Real life experience
Review: One page of actual experiences
Contact : N/A
- Masada 2000
Description: Synopsis of the trouble spots
Review: Good design, good material on the truth
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Menschenrechte auf islamistisch?
Perspective: Human Rights (?)
Description: An insight into the Shariah – Islamic laws, and how Muslims seek to have these laws recognized. Text in English, and in German.
Contact : N/A
- Mi paso por el Islam (My experience as a Muslim)
Description: The story of a Spanish man who has been a Muslim. In Spanish and English.
Review: A moderate, intelligent analysis of Islam.
Contact : N/A
Description: Review of Islam
Review: Sophisticated site with excellent information on issues pertaining to Islam and Christianity
Contact : email@example.com
- Muslim Freethinkers
Description: Its goal is to combat against dogmatism and blind faith.
Review: Good review of Ibn Warraq?s ‘Why I am Not a Muslim’, and some articles very critical of Islam.
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- National Unity Coalition For Israel
Description: A site promoting solidarity with the only democracy of the Middle East. Has some info about Islam.
Review: Lots of advise and arguments that will help one win any debate about the Jewish-Islamic conflict in the Middle East.
Contact : email@example.com
- New Horizons
Description: Promotes the ideals of secularism, democracy, and rational inquiry to Iranians.
Review: Good design, some material, good links for Iranians, small discussion board
Contact : NewHorizons@CFIWest.org
- Orthodox Info (1) Orthodox Info (2)
Perspective: Christian Orthodox
Description: Christian Orthodox demonstrate the moral/ethical superiority of Christianity over Islam.
Review: Good information about eastern Europeans and middle east Christians who suffered under Islam.
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Persian World Outreach
Description: Promotes the love of Jesus.
Review: Good design, news, good links for Iranians.
Contact : email@example.com
Description: Q&A on Islam
Review: Basic design, good material and links
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Project: Open Book
Description: A watchdog, keeping an eye on the persecution of Christians in the Islamic World. Devotes some pages to the history of and theory behind the persecutions.
Review: Good documentation of atrocities on Christians by Muslims
Contact : email@example.com
Review: On hatred of women and Islamic terrorism
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Real Islam
Perspective: Kashmiri Sufism
Description: Writings of Anwar Shaikh
Review: Good design, great articles unraveling the myth of peaceful Islam
Contact : webmaster@RealIslam.org
- Ripoublique Bananière de Francarabia
Description: French webring
Review: Good design, novel ideas and excellent links in French.
Contact : email@example.com
- Russian Society
Description: a group of Russian students who want to protest against the evil religion of Islam
Review: Basic design, some pictures and notes on terrorism in Chechnya
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Saffron Tigers
Description: Wake up call for the Hindus
Review: Well designed website with a Shiv Sena perspective
Contact : email@example.com
- Sita Ka Sansar
Description: The personal website of a Hindu patriot, includes an “Islam exposed” section
Review: Well designed site, information on Hinduism and the truth on Islam
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Sources of Islam
Description: Online book, by W. St. Clair-Tisdall
Review: Good design, intricate details on the ‘origin’ of Koran
Contact : email@example.com
Perspective: Kafir (?)
Description: A site with info about Islam and Islamic terrorism.
Review: Professional layout and very informative. SPLENDID!!!!!
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Sword of Truth
Description: Hindu website; material on the writings of Anwar Shaikh, and Islam in India.
Review: Very informative discussions on topics related to Hinduism. Excellent source for Islamic doublespeak and atrocities. Anwar Shaikh’s (ex-Muslim) articles are eye openers
Contact : email@example.com
- The Good Way
Description: Tells Muslims about Jesus
Review: Cool web page, great for Muslims attempting to understand Christianity
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- The Islamic Monitor
Description: The rising influence of Islam in the West will be the greatest threat to our rights to freedom of speech and religion.
Review: Basic design but great material for everyone. Essay on Jemmima Goldsmith is revealing.
Contact : email@example.com
- The Islamization of Betlehem by Arafat
Description: Info about persecution of Christians in the areas ruled by Muslim terrorist Arafat. In the same site you will also, among other things, find a list of books about Islamization.
Review: Great site, especially for Christians!
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- The Islam Threat and the Enemy within
Description: About the Islamic threat in UK
Review: B-E-A-U-T-I-F-U-L! Great site with video-clips!
Contact : email@example.com
- The Koran: Testimony of AntiChrist
Description: Essays, comparisons between Christianity and Islam
Review: The color combination of this web page is tedious, but has good material for Christians
URL: http://members.aol.com/AllahIslam/index.html ; also see http://www.isnet.org/~djoko/Offsites/Religions/Islam/Oppose/Anti-Christ/00main.html
Contact : N/A
- The prevailing myth
Description: Unravels the inherent logical inconsistency of Islam
Review: Basic design, but has good material and links on logical inconsistencies of Islam
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
98 The Quran
Description: Examines Islam from a Biblical perspective.
Review: Has useful information.
Contact : N/A
- The True Furqan
Description: Preaching peace and brotherhood
Review: A testament for the Muslims to shed the way of atrocity and adopt the way of peace
Contact : N/A (see website for snail mail)
- The Truth Only
Description: Tells the truth about the Arab-Israeli conflict.
Review: Great, huge resource.
Contact : N/A (site may be offline)
- Tidens Tecken
Description: This link leads to one of the great articles about Islam at the site Tidens tecken. In Swedish.
Review: Informative site with useful information on persecution against Christians in Islamic countries.
Contact : email@example.com
- True Factor of Islam
Description: Can you still say that Islam is the religion of peace?
Review: Good read, good materials and links and nice humor
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- True Islam
Description: Collection of jehadi thoughts, pictures and hadiths
Review: Strange reading, but has good collections of hadiths. One can obtain insight into jehadi’s thought process.
Contact : N/A
- Truth Alone Triumphs
Description: Essays and links related to Islamic atrocities
Review: The 20 articles help understand Islam without the usual masquerade or frills. Eight links including one to the Armenian genocide page.
Contact : email@example.com,firstname.lastname@example.org
- Victor Mordecai
Description: Home page on Islamism and threats to peace
Review: Great web design and thought collection
Contact : Vicmord2001@yahoo.com
- Welcome Home Lost Sheep of Israel
Perspective: Judeo-Christian (?)
Description: Has an article with information on the difference between the Judeo-Christian culture and Islam, and then suggests how we can solve the problem.
Review: Good article.
Contact : email@example.com
- Welcome to the World of Hindu Holocaust
Description: Documentation of the history of Islamic massacres against Hindus.
Review: This is very useful information. GREAT!!!
Contact : N/A
Description: Religion and Politics in Islam
Review: This website is in German
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Wenn der Papst den Koran küsst
Description: It explores the al-Taqiyya strategy, and criticizes the politics of multiculturalism, among other things… In German.
Review: A very good site!
Contact : email@example.com
- What Arab Civilization?
Description: A letter, about Islamic “achievements” and “tolerance”, written by an Assyrian
Review: Exposes many myths. EXCELLENT!
Contact : N/A
- “What the hell is going on?”
Description: Site under construction
Review: Has pictures and commentaries on Arafat’s terrorism
Contact : USKAFIR@yahoo.com
- Actualite Internationale
Description: Good site in French about Islamic invasions.
Review: Nice site with international news about “Islamic conquest” all around the world.
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
 P.Kurtz , The Transcendental Temptation , Prometheus Books , Amherst ,1986
 There seems to be some controversy as to what the language of the Koran really is , see my introduction to What the Koran Really Says ., Prometheus Books , Amherst , 2002.
 Translators and commentators refer this sura to the massacre of the Jews of the tribe of Qurayza by Muhammad . See Ibn Ishaq’s Sirat Rasul Allah , trans. by A.Guillaume , Oxford University Press , Oxford , [ Ist Edn. 1955 ] 1987 pp.461-469
 Muslim commentators point out that Jews are meant : e.g. Maulana Muhammad Ali translator of The Holy Quran , Lahore , [ Ist Edn. 1917 ] Reprint 1995 p.260 footnote 714 .
 R.Bell agrees with Suyuti and also says in his commentary , “ The end of the verse shows that the Prophet is speaking in his own words ”p.201. R.Bell, A Commentary on the Qur’an , Vol. I , Manchester , 1991 .
 R.Bell , « verse 114 contains a perplexing mixture of pronouns , ….” Ibid.,
 R .Peters , Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam , A Reader . Princeton , 1996 , p.1
 R.Peters , op.cit., p.3
 Ibn Khaldun The Muqaddimah , trans.F.Rosenthal , ed. by N.J.Dawood , Princeton , 1967 p.183